Detailed characterization of proanthocyanidins in skin, seeds, and wine of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wine grapes (Vitis vinifera).
The University of Adelaide, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5005, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
The distribution of proanthocyanidin (PA) polymer lengths, proanthocyanidin concentration at each polymer length, and polymer composition were determined in the seed, skin, and wine of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in southeast Australia. PA was fractionated by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and analyzed by phloroglucinolysis and HPLC to report the degree of polymerization (DP), concentration, and composition at 11 DP values in seed and wine and 21 DP values in skin. In skin, the highest PA concentration was observed at a DP of 31 in Shiraz and 29 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing 15% of the total PA in both varieties. The distribution of seed PA had the highest concentration at a DP of 7 in Shiraz and 6 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing around 30% of the total PA. In the wine PA distribution, the highest concentration was observed at a DP of 11 in Shiraz and 9 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing around 26 and 32% of the distribution, respectively. A second peak in wine PA concentration was observed at the largest DP of 18 in Shiraz and 15 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing around 20% of the distribution. The composition in wine did not vary at different DP, but the proportion of epicatechin gallate varied in seed PA less than 4 DP. The proportion of epigallocatechin increased with increasing DP in skin PA. Wine PA had a DP range and composition similar to the distribution of skin PA between DP 4 and 18 suggesting that larger skin PAs are not extracted into wine. This study provides information that could be used to target the important PA fractions in grapes that need to be measured to understand (or predict) PA extraction into wine and eventual mouthfeel.
Other papers by authors:
Danfeng Long, Kerry L Wilkinson, Kate Poole, Dennis K Taylor, Tristan Warren, Alejandra M Astorga, Vladimir Jiranek
School of Agriculture, Food & Wine, The University of Adelaide , PMB 1, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064, Australia.
Proline is typically the most abundant amino acid present in grape juice and wine. The amount present is influenced by viticultural and winemaking factors and can be of diagnostic importance. A method for rapid routine quantitation of proline would therefore be of benefit for wine researchers and the industry in general. Colorimetric determination utilizing isatin as a derivatizing agent has previously been applied to plant extracts, biological fluids, and protein hydrolysates. In the current study, this method has been successfully adapted to grape juice and wine and proved to be sensitive to milligram per liter amounts of proline. At sugar concentrations above 60 g/L, interference from the isatin-proline reaction was observed, such that proline concentrations were considerably underestimated in grape juice and dessert wine. However, the method was robust for the analysis of fermentation samples and table wines. Results were within ±10% agreement with data generated from typical HPLC-based analyses. The isatin method is therefore considered suitable for the routine analysis required to support research into the utilization or release of proline by yeast during fermentation.
School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia.
In this study, the suitability of mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy, combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), was evaluated as a rapid analytical technique to identify smoke tainted wines. Control (i.e., unsmoked) and smoke-affected wines (260 in total) from experimental and commercial sources were analyzed by MIR spectroscopy and chemometrics. The concentrations of guaiacol and 4-methylguaiacol were also determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), as markers of smoke taint. LDA models correctly classified 61% of control wines and 70% of smoke-affected wines. Classification rates were found to be influenced by the extent of smoke taint (based on GC-MS and informal sensory assessment), as well as qualitative differences in wine composition due to grape variety and oak maturation. Overall, the potential application of MIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics as a rapid analytical technique for screening smoke-affected wines was demonstrated.
Quantitative analysis of beta-d-glucopyranoside of 3-methyl-4-hydroxyoctanoic acid, a potential precursor to cis-oak lactone, in oak extracts using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based stable isotope dilution analysis.
School of Chemistry, Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders University, P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia.
The beta-D-glucopyranoside of 3-methyl-4-hydroxyoctanoic acid (glucoside), exists in oak wood and is a potential precursor to cis-oak lactone. A method for the quantification of the glucoside in extracts of oak wood using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The [(2)H(4)]-labeled analogue of the glucoside was synthesized and used as internal standard for the method which was subsequently applied to the analysis of extracts of both American and French oak woods. The concentration of the glucoside in the extracts varied widely from less than 0.1 up to approximately 50 microg/g-oak wood. The method allowed for the quantification of the glucoside as a potential oak lactone precursor in oak woods for the first time.
Smoke-derived taint in wine: the release of smoke-derived volatile phenols during fermentation of Merlot juice following grapevine exposure to smoke.
Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, P. O. Box 1231, Bunbury, Western Australia 6230, Australia.
The release of smoke-derived volatile phenols during the fermentation of Merlot grapes, following grapevine exposure to smoke, has been investigated. The concentrations of guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol, 4-ethylphenol, and eugenol were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and found to increase throughout the winemaking process. Only trace levels (< or = 1 microg/L) of guaiacol and 4-methylguaiacol could be detected in free run juice derived from the fruit of smoked vines; the highest levels, 388 microg/L and 93 microg/L, respectively, were observed in the finished wine. Control wine (derived from fruit of unsmoked vines) contained 4 microg/L guaiacol, with the volatile phenols either not detected or detected at only trace levels (< or = 1 microg/L) throughout fermentation. The role of enzyme and acid catalyzed hydrolysis reactions in releasing smoke-derived volatile compounds was also investigated. The volatile phenols were released from smoked free run juice by strong acid hydrolysis (pH 1.0) and enzyme (beta-glucosidase) hydrolysis, but not mild acid hydrolysis (juice pH 3.2-3.7). Guaiacol was again the most abundant smoke-derived phenol, present at 431 microg/L and 325 microg/L in strong acid and enzyme hydrolysates, respectively. Only trace levels of each phenol could be detected in each control hydrolysate. This study demonstrates the potential for under-estimation of smoke taint in fruit and juice samples; the implications for the assessment of smoke taint and quantification of volatile phenols are discussed.
Simultaneous separation by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectral identification of anthocyanins and flavonols in Shiraz grape skin.
Viticulture, Future Farming Systems Research, Department of Primary Industries Victoria, P.O. Box 905, Mildura, Vic. 3502, Australia. email@example.com
A limitation of large-scale viticultural trials is the time and cost of comprehensive compositional analysis of the fruit by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, separate methods have generally been required to identify and quantify different classes of metabolites. To address these shortcomings a reversed-phase HPLC method was developed to simultaneously separate the anthocyanins and flavonols present in grape skins. The method employs a methanol and water gradient acidified with 10% formic acid with a run-time of 48 min including re-equilibration. Identity of anthocyanins and flavonols in Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) skin was confirmed by mass spectral analysis.
Smoke-derived taint in wine: effect of postharvest smoke exposure of grapes on the chemical composition and sensory characteristics of wine.
Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, P.O. Box 1231, Bunbury, Western Australia, 6230, Australia. KKennison@agric.wa.gov.au
Although smoke exposure has been associated with the development of smoke taint in grapes and subsequently in wine, to date there have been no studies that have demonstrated a direct link. In this study, postharvest smoke exposure of grapes was utilized to demonstrate that smoke significantly influences the chemical composition and sensory characteristics of wine and causes an apparent 'smoke taint'. Verdelho grapes were exposed to straw-derived smoke for 1 h and then fermented according to two different winemaking treatments. Control wines were made by fermenting unsmoked grapes. Sensory studies established a perceivable difference between smoked and unsmoked wines; smoked wines were described as exhibiting 'smoky','dirty','earthy','burnt' and 'smoked meat' characteristics. Quantitative analysis, by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, identified guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol, 4-ethylphenol, eugenol, and furfural in each of the wines made from smoked grapes. However, these compounds were not detected in the unsmoked wines, and their origin is therefore attributed to the application of smoke. Increased ethanol concentrations and browning were also observed in wines made from grapes exposed to smoke.
Partial shading of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz vines altered wine color and mouthfeel attributes, but increased exposure had little impact.
Discipline of Wine and Horticulture, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, Glen Osmond, Australia.
Few studies have investigated the impact of vine shading on the sensory attributes of the resultant wine. This study examines the effects of canopy exposure levels on phenolic composition plus aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel aspects in wine. Wines were made from Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) subjected to different levels of canopy exposure in a commercial vineyard in the Sunraysia region, Victoria, Australia. Canopy exposure treatments included control (standard vineyard practice), exposed (achieved with a foliage wire 600 mm above the top cordon), highly exposed (using a foliage wire with leaf plucking in the fruit zone), and shaded treatment (using 70% shade-cloth). Spectral and descriptive analyses showed that levels of anthocyanins, other phenolics, and perceived astringency were lower in wines made from shaded fruit; however, the reverse was generally not observed in wines of exposed and highly exposed fruit. Descriptive analysis also showed wines from the shaded fruit were different from other treatments for a number of flavor and aroma characters. These findings have implications for vineyard management practices.
Identification of natural oak lactone precursors in extracts of american and French oak woods by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
The Australian Wine Research Institute, P.O. Box 197, Glen Osmond, SA, 5064 Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
A method for the screening of potential natural oak lactone precursors in oak wood extracts using LC-MS/MS combined with information-dependent acquisition was developed. The method was applied to extracts of American and French oak woods. As a result, cis-3-methyl-4-galloyloxyoctanoic acid (ring-opened cis-oak lactone gallate),(3S,4S)- and (3S,4R)-3-methyl-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloctanoic acid (ring-opened cis- and trans-oak lactone glucoside), and (3S,4S)-3-methyl-4-O-(6'-O-galloyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyloctanoic acid (ring-opened cis-oak lactone galloylglucoside) were identified as natural oak lactone precursors in the extracts by comparison with the respective synthetic reference compounds. In addition, the ring-opened oak lactone rutinoside was tentatively identified in the extracts. Three apparent isomers of the ring-opened cis-oak lactone galloylglucoside were also observed.
High-performance liquid chromatography separation and purification of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) procyanidins according to degree of polymerization using a diol stationary phase.
Analytical and Applied Sciences Group, Mars Inc., 800 High Street, Hackettstown, New Jersey 07840, USA.
A new chromatographic approach for separating cacao procyanidins according to their degree of polymerization has been developed. It utilizes diol stationary phase columns operating in normal phase mode with a binary gradient of acidified acetonitrile and methanol-water. Performance of the diol stationary phase was evaluated on an analytical scale utilizing classical chromatographic conditions for the normal phase separation of procyanidins according to their degree of polymerization. The new separation approach was developed on an analytical scale but further extended to the preparative scale. These newly developed analytical and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography procedures were successfully applied to the separation, as well as isolation, of cacao procyanidins from unfermented cacao seeds. The degree of polymerization associated with each molecular weight fraction was determined by mass spectrometry.
Proanthocyanidin synthesis and expression of genes encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase in developing grape berries and grapevine leaves.
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Plant Industry, Horticulture Unit, Glen Osmond, South Australia.
Proanthocyanidins (PAs), also called condensed tannins, can protect plants against herbivores and are important quality components of many fruits. Two enzymes, leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR), can produce the flavan-3-ol monomers required for formation of PA polymers. We isolated and functionally characterized genes encoding both enzymes from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz). ANR was encoded by a single gene, but we found two highly related genes encoding LAR. We measured PA content and expression of genes encoding ANR, LAR, and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase in grape berries during development and in grapevine leaves, which accumulated PA throughout leaf expansion. Grape flowers had high levels of PA, and accumulation continued in skin and seeds from fruit set until the onset of ripening. VvANR was expressed throughout early flower and berry development, with expression increasing after fertilization. It was expressed in berry skin and seeds until the onset of ripening, and in expanding leaves. The genes encoding LAR were expressed in developing fruit, particularly in seeds, but had low expression in leaves. The two LAR genes had different patterns of expression in skin and seeds. During grape ripening, PA levels decreased in both skin and seeds, and expression of genes encoding ANR and LAR were no longer detected. The results indicate that PA accumulation occurs early in grape development and is completed when ripening starts. Both ANR and LAR contribute to PA synthesis in fruit, and the tissue and temporal-specific regulation of the genes encoding ANR and LAR determines PA accumulation and composition during grape berry development.
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Alexander Acevedo De la Cruz, Ghislaine Hilbert, Céline Rivière, Virginie Mengin, Nathalie Ollat, Louis Bordenave, Stéphane Decroocq, Jean-Claude Delaunay, Serge Delrot, Jean-Michel Mérillon, Jean-Pierre Monti, Eric Gomès, Tristan Richard
Université de Bordeaux, ISVV, EA 3675 GESVAB, 33882 Villenave d'Ornon, France.
The composition and concentration of anthocyanins of grape berry skins were analyzed in order to assess phenotypic variation between four grape wine varieties belonging to 4 different species: Vitis vinifera, Vitis amurensis, Vitis cinerea and Vitis X champinii. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and NMR spectroscopy (LC-NMR) were used to separate and identify the structure of anthocyanins present in these species. Combination of LC-MS and LC-NMR data resulted in the identification of 33 anthocyanins. In particular, newly reported cis isomers of p-coumaric-derivatives were identified (petunidin-, peonidin- and malvidin-3-(6-p-coumaroyl)-5-diglucoside). In V. cinerea and V. vinifera, anthocyanins were monoglucoside derivatives whereas in V. amurensis and V. X champinii, both mono- and diglucoside derivatives were identified. Malvidin-, delphinidin- and petunidin-derivatives were, respectively, the most abundant components in V. cinerea and V. vinifera, V. amurensis and V. X champinii.
J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Jun 4;: 22630367
Effects of Severity of Post-flowering Leaf Removal on Berry Growth and Composition of Three Red Vitis vinifera L. Cultivars Grown under Semiarid Conditions.
Yorgos Kotseridis, Afroditi Georgiadou, Panagiotis Tikos, Stamatina Kallithraka, Stefanos Koundouras
Department of Food Science and Technology, Agricultural University of Athens , 75 Iera Odos, 11855 Athens, Greece.
The effects of the severity of post-flowering leaf removal on the growth and phenolic composition of berry skin and seeds were studied in three Vitis vinifera L. genotypes over two consecutive seasons, 2007 and 2008. The study was conducted in a commercial vertical shoot positioned (VSP)-trained nonirrigated vineyard of northern Greece, planted with cultivars Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Sangiovese. Three different severities of leaf removal in the fruit zone were applied manually at berry set: nondefoliated (ND), removal of the lateral shoots of the first six basal nodes (LR), and full removal of the total leaf area (main leaves and lateral shoots) of the first six basal nodes (FR). Grape samples were obtained at commercial harvest. Leaf removal decreased yield per vine and cluster weight in Merlot and Sangiovese. Cluster compactness was reduced with the severity of defoliation only in Merlot, due to a decrease in berry number per cluster; berry fresh weight was unaffected in both cultivars. On the contrary, in Cabernet Sauvignon, yield was unaffected but berry size was restrained by leaf removal. Skin and seed mass followed variations in berry mass (except for seed mass in Sangiovese). Fruit zone leaf removal did not affect must soluble solids and increased titratable acidity only in Merlot. Defoliation increased skin anthocyanins in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon in the order FR > LR > ND but significantly reduced seed flavan-3-ols mainly as a result of the reduction in catechin and epicatechin amount. For these varieties, FR had lower seed flavan-3-ols than ND in both varieties, whereas LR had intermediate values. However, in Sangiovese, the highest seed phenolic content was recorded in LR. The results showed that post-flowering leaf removal improved the overall berry composition in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon but had limited effect in Sangiovese.
Supercritical extraction from vinification residues: fatty acids, α-tocopherol, and phenolic compounds in the oil seeds from different varieties of grape.
Laboratório de Óleos Essenciais e Extratos Vegetais, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Rua Francisco Getúlio Vargas 1130, Petrópolis, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS, Brazil. email@example.com
Supercritical fluid extraction has been widely employed in the extraction of high purity substances. In this study, we used the technology to obtain oil from seeds from a variety of grapes, from vinification residues generated in the Southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This work encompasses three varieties of Vitis vinifera (Moscato Giallo, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon) and two of Vitis labrusca (Bordô e Isabel), harvested in 2005 and 2006. We obtained the highest oil content from Bordô (15.40%) in 2005 and from Merlot (14.66%), 2006. The biggest concentration of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids was observed in Bordô, 2005, and in Bordô, Merlot, and Moscato Giallo, 2006. Bordô showed the highest concentration of oleic acid and α-tocopherol in both seasons too. For the equivalent of procyanidins, we did not notice significant difference among the varieties from the 2005 harvest. In 2006, both varieties Isabel and Cabernet Sauvignon showed a value slightly lower than the other varieties. The concentration of total phenolics was higher in Bordô and Cabernet Sauvignon. The presence of these substances is related to several important pharmacological properties and might be an alternative to conventional processes to obtain these bioactives.
Planta. 2012 May 3;: 22552639
Expression of flavonoid genes in the red grape berry of 'Alicante Bouschet' varies with the histological distribution of anthocyanins and their chemical composition.
Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Ambientali, University of Udine, via delle Scienze 208, 33100, Udine, Italy.
The mature berry of Vitis vinifera 'Alicante Bouschet' is entirely red, but anthocyanin metabolism discloses elements of histological discontinuity. This provides an experimental system amenable to studies of compartmentalised secondary metabolism in a fleshly fruit. We compared microscopy of fixed berry sections and chemical composition of anthocyanin extracts with the expression of 41 flavonoid genes in three berry tissues. In the pericarp, anthocyanins formed membrane-encased spherical coalescences that gradually enlarged and were shuttled into the vacuolar system. The size and the intensity of in situ pigmentation and of colour extracts of anthocyanin vesicles all decreased with depth beneath the epidermis. Shades of red colour, and the quantity and types of anthocyanins in skin, flesh, and seed extracts were correlated with differences in the expression of flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylases and anthocyanin genes encoding transcription factors, enzymatic proteins, and transporters. Fine adjustments in the global transcriptional modulation of the pathway occurred distinctively in each tissue, within four groups of co-expressed genes that were more associated with either the pericarp or the seed, and with either early or late-ripening stages. All structural genes controlling early steps of the flavonoid pathway exist in the grapevine genome in multiple copies that were recruited by antagonistic branches of the pathway in the 'Alicante Bouschet' berry. Expression patterns of individual paralogs were spatiotemporally distinct from one another, in step with either anthocyanin genes or proanthocyanidin genes.
Phytochemistry. 2012 Jun ;78 :54-64 22455871
National Research Institute of Brewing, 3-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-0046, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds is known to be sensitive to light environments, which reflects the possible role of these compounds for photoprotection in plants. Herein, the effects of UV and visible light on biosynthesis of flavonoids was investigated, i.e., proanthocyanidins (PAs) and flavonols, in young berry skins of a red-wine grape, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. Shading with light-proof boxes from the flowering stage until 49 days after treatment (DAT) partially decreased PA concentrations, and completely decreased flavonol concentrations in the berry skins. Shading decreased the transcript abundance of a flavonol-related gene more remarkably than those of PA-related genes. In addition, light exclusion influenced the composition of PAs, such as the decrease in the proportion of trihydroxylated subunits and the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) within PAs. However, solar UV exclusion did not affect the concentration and composition of PAs, whereas this exclusion remarkably decreased the flavonol concentration. Consistently, UV exclusion did not influence the transcript levels of PA-related genes, whereas it dramatically decreased that of flavonol-related genes. These findings indicated a different light regulation of the biosynthesis of these flavonoids in young berry skins of wine grape. Visible light primarily induces biosynthesis of PAs and affects their composition, whereas UV light specifically induces biosynthesis of flavonols. Distinct roles of members of a MYB transcription factor family for light regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis were proposed.
J Food Sci. 2011 Jun ;76 (5):C742-9 22417421
Polymeric Proanthocyanidins in Skins and Seeds of 37 Vitis vinifera L. Cultivars: A Methodological Comparative Study.
Authors are with DiSCAFF and DFB (Drug and Food Biotechnology) Center, Univ. degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale "A. Avogadro", Via Bovio 6, Novara 28100, Italy. Direct inquiries to author Bordiga (E-mail: email@example.com).
The polymeric proanthocyanidins (PAs) composition of skins and seeds from different Vitis vinifera L. cv. was evaluated, sampling 37 cultivar, preserved in the grapevine collection of Grinzane Cavour (Piedmont, Italy). PAs were quantified using both spectrophotometric (n-butanol and vanillin assay) and chromatographic (high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC]) methods, and the evaluation of their antioxidant activity was performed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay. Results of PAs quantification with the different methods were significantly correlated. A strong correlation pointed out between anthocyans and PAs content (particularly regarding HPLC method; r = 0.9359, P = 0), and the antioxidant activity was not dependent on the polymeric PAs content, but negatively correlated with the degree of polymerization (r =-0.6102, P = 1 × 10(-4)). The hierarchical clustering on principal components analysis allowed grouping the samples in 3 different clusters, observing a direct association between the cluster classification and the anthocyans/PAs content.
Isolation and characterization of two hydroperoxide lyase genes from grape berries : HPL isogenes in Vitis vinifera grapes.
Centre for Viticulture and Enology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China.
C6 compounds are the major fraction of the volatile profiles of grape berries, contributing the typical 'green' aroma to the grape and wine. Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) catalyzes the cleavage of fatty acid hydroperoxides to produce C6 compounds. Two hypothetical genes, VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 were cloned from grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon). Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the proteins encoded by these two genes both belong to subfamily of cytochrome P450 and contain typical conserved domains of HPLs, and have high identity with HPLs from other plants. Prokaryotically-expressed VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 with thioredoxin-6xHis-fusion partner were confirmed to have enzymatic activity. VvHPL1 is specific for 13-HPOD (T) producing C6 aldehydes with relatively higher activity and VvHPL2 catalyzes the cleavage of both 9- and 13-hydroperoxides producing C6 aldehydes and C9 aldehydes respectively. Analysis of real time-PCR showed that VvHPL2 was highly expressed in the leaves and the flowers of the grapes, while relatively low transcript abundance was detected in the berries, tendril and stems; VvHPL1 had high expression in all detected tissues. During grape berry development, the expression of these two isogenes presented similar trends with a rapid increase after veraison and a decrease at full-ripen stage, which roughly corresponded to the accumulation of their volatile products. These data lay an essential foundation for further study on the accumulation and control of C6 volatiles in grape berries.
The Australian Wine Research Institute, Glen Osmond, SA, Australia.
Commercial red wines ( Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz) produced during the 2009 vintage underwent winemaker assessment for allocation grade soon after production. The wines were then subjected to phenolic analysis to measure wine color (total anthocyanin, SO(2) nonbleachable pigment, and wine color density) and tannins (concentration, composition, and average degree of polymerization). A positive relationship was found between wine phenolic concentration and projected bottle price. Tannin compositional analysis suggested that there was specifically a relationship between wine grade and skin-derived tannins. These results suggest that maximization of skin tannin concentration and/or proportion is related to an increase in projected wine bottle price.
Molecules. 2011 ;16 (4):2846-61 21455097
Occurrence and estimation of trans-resveratrol in one-year-old canes from seven major Chinese grape producing regions.
College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.
The concentration of trans-resveratrol in 165 grape cane samples from three major grape production regions and four large distribution centers of Chinese wild Vitis species were determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Among the different genotype groups and purpose of uses, cultivars of V. vinifera had much higher amounts of trans-resveratrol than did the cultivars of both V. labrusca or V. labrusca and V. vinifera hybrids, and within the V. vinifera species, significantly higher amounts of trans-resveratrol were found in wine grapes compared to table ones. No significant differences were observed between V. labrusca and its hybrids from crosses with V. vinifera, and between red cultivars and white ones (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The contents of trans-resveratrol, as a normal constituent occurring in grape canes, in Chinese wild species of V. amurensis, V. pentagona, and V. davidii from their native habitats were also relatively high.
Berry skin development in Norton grape: distinct patterns of transcriptional regulation and flavonoid biosynthesis.
Center for Grapevine Biotechnology, William H. Darr School of Agriculture, Missouri State University, Mountain Grove, MO 65711, USA.
BACKGROUND The complex and dynamic changes during grape berry development have been studied in Vitis vinifera, but little is known about these processes in other Vitis species. The grape variety 'Norton', with a major portion of its genome derived from Vitis aestivalis, maintains high levels of malic acid and phenolic acids in the ripening berries in comparison with V. vinifera varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon. Furthermore, Norton berries develop a remarkably high level of resistance to most fungal pathogens while Cabernet Sauvignon berries remain susceptible to those pathogens. The distinct characteristics of Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon merit a comprehensive analysis of transcriptional regulation and metabolite pathways. RESULTS A microarray study was conducted on transcriptome changes of Norton berry skin during the period of 37 to 127 days after bloom, which represents berry developmental phases from herbaceous growth to full ripeness. Samples of six berry developmental stages were collected. Analysis of the microarray data revealed that a total of 3,352 probe sets exhibited significant differences at transcript levels, with two-fold changes between at least two developmental stages. Expression profiles of defense-related genes showed a dynamic modulation of nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance genes and pathogenesis-related (PR) genes during berry development. Transcript levels of PR-1 in Norton berry skin clearly increased during the ripening phase. As in other grapevines, genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were up-regulated in Norton as the berry developed. The most noticeable was the steady increase of transcript levels of stilbene synthase genes. Transcriptional patterns of six MYB transcription factors and eleven structural genes of the flavonoid pathway and profiles of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) during berry skin development were analyzed comparatively in Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon. Transcriptional patterns of MYB5A and MYB5B were similar during berry development between the two varieties, but those of MYBPA1 and MYBPA2 were strikingly different, demonstrating that the general flavonoid pathways are regulated under different MYB factors. The data showed that there were higher transcript levels of the genes encoding flavonoid-3'-O-hydroxylase (F3'H), flavonoid-3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX), UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3'-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), anthocyanidin reductase (ANR), leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) 1 and LAR2 in berry skin of Norton than in those of Cabernet Sauvignon. It was also found that the total amount of anthocyanins was markedly higher in Norton than in Cabernet Sauvignon berry skin at harvest, and five anthocyanin derivatives and three PA compounds exhibited distinctive accumulation patterns in Norton berry skin. CONCLUSIONS This study provides an overview of the transcriptome changes and the flavonoid profiles in the berry skin of Norton, an important North American wine grape, during berry development. The steady increase of transcripts of PR-1 and stilbene synthase genes likely contributes to the developmentally regulated resistance during ripening of Norton berries. More studies are required to address the precise role of each stilbene synthase gene in berry development and disease resistance. Transcriptional regulation of MYBA1, MYBA2, MYB5A and MYBPA1 as well as expression levels of their putative targets F3'H, F3'5'H, LDOX, UFGT, ANR, LAR1, and LAR2 are highly correlated with the characteristic anthocyanin and PA profiles in Norton berry skin. These results reveal a unique pattern of the regulation of transcription and biosynthesis pathways underlying the viticultural and enological characteristics of Norton grape, and yield new insights into the understanding of the flavonoid pathway in non-vinifera grape varieties.