A new technique of vaginal reconstruction using neurovascular pudendal-thigh flaps: a preliminary report.
Departments of Pediatric, Singapore General Hospital.
The blood supply to the skin of the perineum, medial groin, and upper thigh was studied in fresh female cadavers. The pudendal-thigh flap was designed as a result to reconstruct the vagina. The flaps are raised bilaterally in the groin crease just lateral to the labia majora and then are transposed toward the midline and sutured together to form a skin-lined cul-de-sac which opens at the introitus. The technique has been used successfully in three patients to reconstruct the vagina. The first patient, an adult, was reconstructed after total pelvic exenteration for malignancy, while two children had reconstructions for congenital vaginal anomalies. This technique is superior to currently available methods because it is simple and reliable. No stents or dilators are needed. It is safe technique without complications in our hands. The reconstructed vagina has a natural angle for intercourse and is sensate. The donor scars in the groin are well hidden.
Tunneled modified lotus petal flap for surgical reconstruction of severe introital stenosis after radical vulvectomy.
Alessandro Buda, Pier Luigi Confalonieri, Luca Carlo Vittorio Rovati, Mauro Signorelli, Massimo Del Bene
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Milano-Bicocca, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy.
INTRODUCTION We presented the anatomical, functional and aesthetic results achieved with lotus petal flap in case of introital stenosis as a results of inadequate primary plastic reconstruction. We discussed the potential advantages of lotus petal flap compared to others vulvar reconstructive techniques. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of a 44-years old woman presenting a severe introital stenosis following radical surgery for vulvar cancer. She could not have a normal sexual activity life because the narrow scarred introitus resulting after primary closure of a large vulvar defect. The patient comes to our attention after three years from primary surgery. Once the scar was removed we performed a vulvoperineal reconstruction with bilateral tunneled lotus petal flaps. DISCUSSION Lotus petal flap is a safe, easy and quick technique, has a good functional and cosmetic results in this young woman, and represents an optimal alternative solution for plastic reconstruction in case of severe introital stenosis after primary closure of large vulvoperineal defect. CONCLUSION Tunneled lotus petal flaps represents a feasible, attractive and versatile surgical reconstructive technique that can be easily performed after surgical treatment of vulvoperineal neoplasms.
JSLS. ;13 (2):221-3 19660220
Creation of a neovagina by the Vecchietti procedure in a patient with corrected high imperforate anus.
University Medical Group, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Greenville, South Carolina 29605, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Vaginal atresia is often associated with high imperforate anus. Because the commonly used methods of surgical vaginal creation (eg, McIndoe, intestinal segment interposition) may adversely affect urinary and fecal continence, the less-invasive Vecchietti procedure was selected for a young adult with a successfully corrected high imperforate anus. METHODS A 21-year-old was born with a high imperforate anus, vaginal atresia, right hemi-uterus, and left renal agenesis. A colostomy was done at birth, a pull-through procedure at 9 months, and a stoma closure 3 months later. At age 13, an obstructed and dilated right hemiuterus and fallopian tube were resected. A laparoscopic version of the Vecchietti procedure was used for creation of a neovagina. RESULTS After the patient had been in the hospital for 2 days, traction was gradually advanced every other day in the office. At 2 weeks postoperatively, the bead was removed revealing a 7-cm vagina. Further elongation was achieved using the Frank method, while continence remained intact. CONCLUSION The Vecchietti procedure is an attractive, minimally invasive alternative for creation of a neovagina in patients at risk for compromise to their vesico-anorectal continence.
Division of Gynecologic Oncology, The James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA. Jeffrey.firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE The objective of this review is to discuss the more common surgical scenarios that often require pelvic/vaginal reconstruction with an emphasis on incorporating reconstructive options into the pelvic exenteration. METHODS A review of the literature regarding pelvic/vaginal reconstruction in patients undergoing radical pelvic surgery was performed and supplemented with the authors' own experience. RESULTS Reconstructive surgical procedures are often necessary with outcome goals that include any combination of enhanced wound healing, decrease in acute and chronic morbidity, and restoration of anatomic form and function. Many reconstruction techniques are available including, but not limited to, skin grafting, simple tissue transposition flaps, fasciocutaneous flaps, and myocutaneous flaps. It is extremely important that the gynecologic oncologist be proficient with more than one of the reconstructive options available to address the various pelvic/vaginal defects one may encounter. There is a wide range in the complexity of surgical situations requiring reconstruction. The pelvic exenteration in the previously radiated patient offers the highest level of challenge in terms of pre-operative planning, intra-operative decision-making and surgical skills. Vaginal reconstruction for sexual intercourse may be a priority for some patients, however pelvic/vaginal reconstruction plays a major role in facilitating wound healing, minimizing significant morbidity, and improving patient quality of life and functional outcomes. CONCLUSIONS The gynecologic oncologist is best suited to orchestrate this multifaceted surgical process. It is extremely important that the gynecologic oncologist be well versed in the reconstructive options available in order that it is optimally planned and effected at the primary surgical procedure.
Perineal and posterior vaginal wall reconstruction with superior and inferior gluteal artery perforator flaps.
Marcus J D Wagstaff, Warren M Rozen, Iain S Whitaker, Morteza Enajat, Thorir Audolfsson, Rafael Acosta
Department of Plastic Surgery, University Hospitals of Sheffield, Herries Road, Sheffield S57AU, UK.
Perineal and posterior vaginal wall reconstruction following abdominoperineal and local cancer resection entails replacement of volume between the perineum and sacrum and restoration of a functional vagina. Ideal local reconstructive options include those which avoid functional muscle sacrifice, do not interfere with colostomy formation, and avoid the use of irradiated tissue. In avoiding the donor site morbidity of other options, we describe a fasciocutaneous option for the reconstruction of the perineum and posterior vaginal wall. We present our technique of superior and inferior gluteal artery perforator (SGAP or IGAP) flaps to reconstruct such defects. Fourteen patients between 2004 and 2008 underwent 11 SGAP and three IGAP flaps. There were no flap failures or partial flap losses and no postoperative hernias. All female patients reported resumption of sexual intercourse following this procedure. Our experience in both the immediate and delayed setting is that this technique produces a good functional outcome with low donor-site morbidity.
Nicole L Y Tham, Wei-Ren Pan, Warren M Rozen, Marcus P Carey, G Ian Taylor, Russell J Corlett, Mark W Ashton
Jack Brockhoff Reconstructive Plastic Surgery Research Unit, Room E533, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Melbourne, Grattan Street, Parkville, 3050 Victoria, Australia.
BACKGROUND The pudendal thigh fasciocutaneous (PTF) flap is a useful flap in perineal reconstruction, that is reliable when small but is traditionally unreliable when large flaps are raised. Large flaps in particular, are associated with an increased incidence of apical necrosis. Thorough descriptions of the vascular anatomy of this flap have been lacking from the literature, with the current study evaluating this anatomy, aiming to provide the anatomical basis for vascular problems and for techniques to maximise its survival. METHODS Five unembalmed human cadaveric pelvis specimens were studied. Lead oxide injectant enabled radiographic and dissection analysis of the arterial anatomy of the integument of the perineum. RESULTS A consistent pattern of vascular supply was found in all specimens. 1: the blood supply to the pelvic floor was supplied sequentially by the posterior labial/scrotal arteries, cutaneous branches from the anterior branch of the obturator artery, and branches from the external pudendal arteries. 2: these vessels ran close to the midline, medial to the PTF flap. 3: the posterior labial/scrotal arteries were deep to the Colles' fascia and the branches from the obturator artery and external pudendal arteries were located superficial to the Colles' fascia. CONCLUSION This study has demonstrated that the PTF flap is a three vascular territory flap and that the pedicle is situated close to the midline. This may explain why regions of the PTF flap may have a potentially precarious blood supply, and suggests that the PTF flap should be designed more medially. Given the third territory of supply to the apex of the flap, a delay procedure may help to avoid flap necrosis.
The free gracilis perforator flap: anatomical study and clinical refinements of a new perforator flap.
Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, Medical Centre Vogtareuth, Vogtareuth, Tuttlingen, Germany.
BACKGROUND: The free gracilis perforator flap is a fascioadipocutaneous flap on the medial thigh, based on perforators of the main pedicle of the gracilis myocutaneous flap. METHODS: An anatomical study was performed using 43 cadaver dissections. The vascular anatomy of the gracilis perforator flap with regard to myocutaneous and septocutaneous perforators was assessed. Clinical application was demonstrated in 14 cases. RESULTS: Musculocutaneous perforators of the gracilis muscle pedicle were present in all dissections and were 0.5 mm or more in 93 percent. Septocutaneous perforators were found in 84 percent of the dissections, and perforators of 0.5 mm or more were found in 63 percent. Most musculocutaneous perforators were found in the anterior quarter of the muscle where the pedicle enters the gracilis muscle. A constant intramuscular anastomosis between the main and second vascular pedicles of the gracilis was demonstrated that allowed design of an extended gracilis perforator flap. CONCLUSIONS: Successful clinical application in 14 cases confirmed vascular reliability. The gracilis perforator flap is a pliable, thin flap from the medial thigh that can be as large as 18 x 15 cm. The donor site is inconspicuous, and a functional gracilis muscle is preserved. By including a constant intramuscular anastomosis, it is possible to extend the territory of the free flap distally up to a length of 27 cm. Indications include reconstruction of cutaneous defects such as unstable scars or contractures. The medial thigh adipose tissue correlates well with the body mass index and thus can be used for breast reconstruction as a second choice if an abdominal perforator flap is not available.
Division of Plastic Surgery, Shriner's Burn Hospital for Children and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
Reconstruction of the nose after severe burn injury is a challenging problem. There are usually associated facial burns, which limits the availability of local flaps. Reconstruction with unburned distant tissue is often not appropriate because of the resulting mismatch in color and texture. Successful nasal reconstruction can be accomplished in this group of challenging patients using a simple, inferiorly based flap from the nasal dorsum with subsequent skin grafting to the resulting defect. We have used an inferiorly based nasal turndown flap to reconstruct severe nasal deformities after burn injury in 28 patients. The flap tissue consists of the dorsal surface of the nose, which is usually made up of skin graft and scar. The flap base is the scar transition zone between the dorsum of the nose and the lining mucosa. This is turned over to provide nasal length, projection, and to stimulate alar lobules. The resulting defect on the dorsum of the nose is then skin grafted. If further length or refinement is required, the procedure may be repeated. The records of all patients who underwent this procedure were reviewed for demographics, age at burn, percentage of total body surface area burned (%TBSA), availability of the forehead, number of procedures, and complications. Twenty-eight patients underwent nasal reconstruction in our series using this local turndown flap. Most of these patients had severe burns, with an average %TBSA of 46%. The procedure was initially applied to patients with devastating injuries and %TBSA of 80%-95%, with extremely limited donor sites. As the success of the procedure was established, less severely burned patients were included in the series, thereby lowering the mean %TBSA. All patients had partial or complete destruction of their forehead donor site. All patients presented for multiple hospitalizations, with an average of 17 hospital admissions. Using this local turndown flap, adequate nasal length and projection could be achieved. There were few complications. All of the flaps survived, although there were 2 cases of necrosis of the distal edge of the flaps (0.7%). This resulted in decreased length and projection but this problem was successfully addressed with additional staged procedures. Contraction of local scar tissue created bulk and support, eliminating the need for distant tissue transfer or cartilage grafting. Twelve of the 28 patients required repeat turndown flaps to achieve sufficient nasal length and projection. These results were durable over a follow-up period of up to several decades. A simple, multistaged dorsal nasal flap can be used to reconstruct severe nasal deformities after facial burn injury. This can obviate the need for distant tissue transfer. Even in patients with subtotal nasal amputation and complete absence of cartilaginous support, the opportunistic use of scar tissue can restore nasal tip projection and alar lobule architecture without cartilage grafting. The resulting nasal reconstruction blends well into the surrounding facial appearance. This simple technique has been remarkably successful in this selected group of patients with challenging nasal deformities.
Yuzaburo Namba, Narushi Sugiyama, Shuji Yamashita, Kenjiro Hasegawa, Yoshihiro Kimata, Mikiya Nakatsuka
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. email@example.com
We treated 2 different types of intersexual patients who underwent a vaginoplasty with the pudendal-thigh flap. One was a female with testicular feminization syndrome for whom we reconstructed the total vagina with a pudendal-thigh flap, and the other was a female with an adrenogenital syndrome for whom we enlarged the introitus of the vagina with the same approach. There were no complications such as a flap necrosis. In addition, there was no stricture of the neo-vagina and no urinary problem.
Plain articaine or prilocaine for spinal anaesthesia in day-case knee arthroscopy: a double-blind randomized trial.
Department of Anesthesiology, Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital, PO Box 9015, 6500 GS Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
BACKGROUND Both prilocaine and articaine are short-acting local anaesthetics suited for spinal anaesthesia for day-case knee arthroscopy. Articaine is thought to have a faster onset and shorter duration of action than prilocaine, although no comparative study has been published in the anaesthetic literature. METHODS In this prospective randomized double-blind study, spinal anaesthesia was performed in 72 ASA I-II patients undergoing knee arthroscopy with 50 mg of either plain prilocaine or plain articaine. The primary outcome variable was duration of motor block. Secondary outcomes were onset of sensory and motor blocks, maximum spread of the sensory block, time to spontaneous voiding, and side-effects. RESULTS Time to full motor function recovery was shorter after articaine than prilocaine [mean (SD) 140 (33) vs 184 (46) min, respectively, P<0.001]. Time to spontaneous voiding was shorter after articaine than prilocaine [mean (SD) 184 (39) vs 227 (45) min, respectively, P<0.001]. One patient in the articaine group reported mild transient neurological symptoms (TNS) limited to the first postoperative day, but there were no significant differences in adverse effects between the groups. CONCLUSIONS Spinal anaesthesia with plain articaine 50 mg resulted in a faster recovery of motor function and earlier spontaneous voiding compared with plain prilocaine 50 mg. Surgical anaesthesia was not different. The incidence of TNS was low.
Primary Vaginal Reconstruction at the Time of Pelvic Exenteration for Gynecologic Cancer: Morbidity Revisited.
Department of Gynecology, Clínica Universitaria, University of Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 36 31008, Pamplona, Spain, firstname.lastname@example.org.
The aim of this study is to analyze our experience about the benefits and morbidity of primary vaginal reconstruction in pelvic exenteration. Over a 10-year period, 64 patients underwent a pelvic exenteration for gynecologic cancer, except for ovarian and fallopian cancer. Twenty-nine patients underwent pelvic exenteration with vaginal reconstruction [21 cases with transverse rectus-abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap and eight cases with Singapore fascio-cutaneous flap]. Thirty-five patients did not undergo vaginal reconstruction. Postoperative morbidity was recorded and a comparative analysis of morbidity between groups was made. Pelvic abscess and small bowel fistula occurred more frequently in the no neovagina group (20% versus 6.9% and 20% versus 3.4%, respectively). There were no differences between groups regarding fever, colorectal anastomosis (CRA) dehiscence-leakage, prolonged ileus, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or wound complications. Surgery time was significantly longer for the neovagina group. There was only one perioperative death, which occurred in the neovagina group. Vaginal stenosis, necrosis, and shortness occurred less frequently for TRAM flap compared with Singapore flap (19.0% versus 28.6%, 14.5% versus 50% and 0% versus 100%, respectively). CRA dehiscence-leakage appeared more frequently (83.3% versus 28.6%) in the Singapore group. Nevertheless, this complication was statistically associated (p = 0.0009) with low CRA (<5 cm). TRAM flap seems to be the preferable option for reconstructing the vagina after pelvic exenteration. The Singapore fascio-cutaneous flap carries a higher rate of complications, does not work as functional neovagina after pelvic exenteration, and does not seem to be a good choice in cases of low colorectal anastomosis.
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Head Neck Oncol. 2012 ;4 (2):49 23104531
Comparison of MRI, CT and 18F-FDG-PET/CT for the detection of intracranial disease extension in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, 90 Yishun Central, Singapore 768828. email@example.com.
BACKGROUND It is essential to determine local tumour extent in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), as it affects prognosis and accuracy of primary target delineation during radiotherapy treatment planning. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of three imaging modalities (MRI, CT and 18F-FDG-PET/CT) in detecting intracranial extension of NPC. METHODS The study population comprised of 78 patients with histologically proven NPC. Cancer staging was performed with MRI of the neck, whole body 18F-FDGPET/ CT and contrast-enhanced CT of the neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis. RESULTS MRI detected 14 patients with intracranial extension of disease, constituting a detection rate of 17.9%. CT identified 5 out of these 14 patients (detection rate of 6.4%) while 18F-FDG-PET/CT identified 6 out of these 14 patients (detection rate of 7.7%). Using MRI as the reference imaging modality, the sensitivity and specificity of CT was 35.7% and 100% while the sensitivity and specificity of 18F-FDG-PET/CT was 42.9% and 100%. CONCLUSION MRI remains the modality of choice for detecting intracranial disease extension of NPC.
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK.
BACKGROUND Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) is the commonest neonatal neoplasm. Its long-term effects are important in prenatal counseling and the delivery of an appropriate postoperative plan. AIM To determine the long-term functional outcome after SCT excision in a UK regional center. STUDY DESIGN Follow-up data for all patients with a SCT excised at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford was collected retrospectively from notes and prospectively in clinic visits. OUTCOME MEASURES Clinical evidence of bowel or bladder impairment, mortality. RESULTS Over a 14-year period, 18 patients had a histologic diagnosis of SCT. Nine patients (50%) were born, 7 (39%) were terminated, and 2 (11%) were stillbirths. Of the 9 patients who had SCT resection, 4 (44%) were antenatally diagnosed. There were no perioperative deaths and alpha-fetoprotein levels normalized by 6 to 12 months after tumor resection. Median follow-up of patients was 30 months (range: 6 to 132 mo) with 1 patient lost to follow-up at 6 months, although he was asymptomatic at the time. Three patients developed urologic complications (2 within 1 year of tumor resection), including 2 patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction and 1 patient with detrusor sphincter dyssynergia. CONCLUSIONS Approximately one-third of patients will develop major urologic complications after resection of SCT. Routine ultrasonography in the first postoperative year after tumor resection may help to identify patients with neuropathic bladder at the early stage and predict late complications. Parents need to be aware of this potential long-term complication during prenatal counseling and the need for regular long-term follow-up with the pediatric surgical team.
Fibroepithelial polyps causing ureteropelvic junction obstruction in children - a case report and review article.
Department of Paediatric Surgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom.
Fibroepithelial polyps are extremely rare benign mesodermal tumours in children that can cause ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction. We report on a 10-year-old boy presenting with UPJ obstruction due to a fibroepithelial polyp, and review 28 similar published paediatric cases.
John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DU, United Kingdom. firstname.lastname@example.org
Most urogenital abnormalities are now diagnosed antenatally on high resolution ultrasound scans. This has enabled recognition of those that are not compatible with survival and these are managed with termination of pregnancy. Renal anomalies that require surgical intervention continue to pose challenges. Conditions such as multicystic dysplastic kidney can be easily recognised and managed based on the experience gained with long-term studies of its natural history. Polycystic kidney on the other hand while not posing a diagnostic problem remains beyond the reach of therapeutic intervention and postnatal supportive measures are the only available means of dealing with this entity at present. The major difficulty is with the management of antenatally diagnosed pelvicalyceal dilatation. The goal of intervention is to preserve renal function when dilatation is the consequence of obstruction. Unfortunately, by the time ultrasound evidence of significant obstruction is apparent renal damage is already established. Fetal intervention should be considered in those cases where severe oligohydramnios is associated with hydronephrosis, especially in the presence of a solitary kidney or in bilateral disease. Postnatally, all neonates with renal tract dilatation should be managed according to a protocol which mandates serial measurements of renal pelvis diameter and correlates this with data from radionuclide scans. This will enable recognition of kidneys that are at risk of losing function while at the same time avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention in those which remain dilated but are functionally stable.
Acute retention of urine due to prolapsing stoma in a case of anorectal malformation with bladder neck fistula.
Division of Paediatric Surgery, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore.
This case report describes an extremely premature infant who was born with a high anorectal malformation requiring a colostomy soon after birth. He later developed multiple episodes of acute urinary retention complicated by bilateral hydronephrosis and acute renal failure. The cause of the retention was found to be the prolapsing stoma, which was kinking the bladder neck.
Department of Paediatric Surgery, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, 229899, Singapore.
The aims of this study were to determine the pattern of presentation of childhood mediastinal masses in our community and to identify factors associated with the development of acute airway compromise. The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 29 consecutive patients with mediastinal masses managed at their institution between January 1995 and December 2001. Demographic data, mass characteristics, clinical presentation, and surgical procedures were recorded. Seven patients (24.1%) were asymptomatic at presentation. Eight (27.6%) were classified as having acute airway compromise at presentation. Respiratory symptoms and signs were the most common mode of presentation (58.6% and 55.2%, respectively). The most common histological diagnosis was neurogenic mass (37.9%), followed by lymphoma (24.1%). Most masses were located in the superior mediastinum (41.1%). Factors associated with the development of acute airway compromise were (1) anterior location of the mediastinal mass (P=0.019),(2) histological diagnosis of lymphoma (P=0.008),(3) symptoms and signs of superior vena cava syndrome (P=0.015 and 0.003, respectively),(4) radiological evidence of vessel compression or displacement (P=0.015),(5) pericardial effusion (P=0.015), and (6) pleural effusion (P=0.033). Clinical presentation of childhood mediastinal masses is often nonspecific or incidental. Yet they have the propensity of developing acute airway compromise, which is closely associated with superior vena cava obstruction. Such patients should be managed as a complex cardiorespiratory syndrome, termed "critical mediastinal mass syndrome", by an experienced multidisciplinary team.
Department of Paediatric Surgery, KK Women's & Children's Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899.
The carbon dioxide laser for circumcision was introduced by our department in 1989. This study aims to review our experience with laser circumcision for children and to evaluate its cost effectiveness as compared to conventional methods. A retrospective study of 30 patients who underwent conventional circumcision in 1985 and another 30 patients who underwent laser circumcision in 1995 was undertaken. The operating times in both groups were compared. The total cost of use of the laser machine was calculated, taking into account maintenance costs, estimated life span of laser machines (10 years) and costs of disposables used during each circumcision. This was weighed against the cost savings from shorter operating times and reduced operating theatre facility charges. Also, morbidity data from 2781 laser circumcisions done between May 1997 and April 2000 was collected. There was a significant decrease of 5 minutes in operating time for the group of patients who underwent laser circumcision. Calculated cost savings per laser circumcision from the reduced operating theatre time was S dollars 31/-. Of the 2781 cases of laser circumcision performed, there was an overall complication rate of 1.15%. Twenty-nine cases (1.04%) had post circumcision bleeding, of which 10 cases (0.36%) required unplanned return to operating theatre for hemostasis. Three cases (0.11%) had wound infection, requiring admission to hospital. Laser circumcision is a simple method with reduced operative time translating into cost effectiveness. Morbidity rates of laser circumcision compare favourably to those of conventional circumcision based on reports from other institutions.
Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Kandang Kerbau Women's and Children's Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899, Republic of Singapore. email@example.com
We report on a 3-year-old girl who developed a large embolic cerebral infarct 1 day after an uneventful thoracotomy to remove a large pleuropulmonary blastoma. The tumour had encased the heart and great vessels and ruptured into the left hemithorax. Pleuropulmonary blastoma is a rare, but unique, primary thoracic neoplasm in young children and, to our knowledge, the development of a secondary large embolic cerebral infarct is also uncommon and has not been reported in this tumour.
Division of Paediatric Surgery, KK Women's & Children's Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899.
INTRODUCTION Proximal hypospadias poses major problems in surgical correction owing to the complexity and severity of the abnormalities, leading to the use of staged repairs to correct this condition. However, with precise definition of the components of this deformity a single-stage operation can be developed and applied successfully for surgical correction of this condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-six patients with severe proximal hypospadias were subjected to a one-stage repair. Excision of proximal fibrotic dartos tissue and removal of dysplastic urethral plate tissue corrected chordee completely. Urethral reconstruction was then performed by tubularising a flap of dorso-lateral preputial skin which was then anastomosed to the proximal urethra. The glandular part of the urethra was reconstructed using the distal part of the flap as an onlay graft over the meatal groove. The suture lines were covered with a layer of dartos tissue and skin closure was completed by transposing dorsal skin to surface the ventral penile shaft. A urethral catheter was left in for 10 days. RESULTS All patients have been followed up after surgery from 1 to 5 years with a median period of 2 years. There were no fistulas. Two patients had mild stenosis at the meatus which responded to dilatation. One patient developed a stricture at the proximal anastomosis which required secondary correction. All other patients achieved satisfactory correction, both in terms of voiding and in the cosmetic appearance of the genitalia. CONCLUSION Single-stage repair of hypospadias can be successfully applied in the correction of severe proximal hypospadias. It requires meticulous dissection and careful design of reconstructive techniques. The end results are comparable to staged procedures and morbidity is significantly lower.
Comparing wound closure using tissue glue versus subcuticular suture for pediatric surgical incisions: a prospective, randomised trial.
Department of Pediatric Surgery, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899. firstname.lastname@example.org
Tissue adhesives have gained favour for quicker and painless closure of lacerations. To compare the tissue adhesive 2-octylcyanoacrylate with our current standard subcuticular suture for closure of surgical incisions in children, looking at outcome measures of time efficiency, cosmesis, and wound complications, a prospective, randomised, controlled trial was conducted at our institution's ambulatory surgery centre. All healthy patients undergoing unilateral or bilateral herniotomies were recruited prospectively with informed consent and randomly allocated to suture or glue. The exclusion criteria were neonates or children with allergy to tissue glue. Time of wound closure was measured from the subcutaneous layer to application of the dressing. An independent, blinded observer assessed cosmesis at 2 to 3 weeks using a validated wound scale ranging from worst (0) to best (6). Parent satisfaction with wound appearance was recorded on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). A total of 59 patients were recruited into the study with 26 in the glue group and 33 in the suture group. There was no difference in mean time of closure (glue 181 +/- 62 s vs suture 161 +/- 45 s, P = 0.18). Two patients in each group had a suboptimal Hollander wound score of 5 (7.7% glue, 6.1% suture). There was also no difference in parent satisfaction (VAS: glue 78 +/- 19 mm vs suture 81 +/- 15 mm, P = 0.68). No patient reported any rash, wound infection, or dehiscence. Tissue glue is easy to use with no complications and has equivalent cosmetic results, but is not faster than a subcuticular suture.
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Service of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital of Salamanca, Spain. email@example.com
Contractures secondary to burns affecting the perineum often cause severe functional, aesthetic and psychological harm. Many different surgical techniques are used to treat such conditions ranging from grafts, to triangular plasty transposition or advancement flaps of local tissue. It is usually advisable to use a flap or local perineoplasty because the quality of reconstruction tends to be better and the risk of reoccurrence of the contracture is lower. The pudendal thigh fasciocutaneous (PTF) flap is an axial patterned and sensate flap based on the groin crease. It has frequently been used for perineal and vaginal reconstructions. Technically, it is not difficult to perform, with a well tolerated scar located in the inguinal crease, and it is characterized by its thinness and its ready adaptation to the defects, and because it maintains sensitivity. To the best of our knowledge, no previous case of perineal contracture treatment has been reported with the use of a PTF flap harvested as an YV advanced flap. Here we report the case of a patient with a severe contracture who was treated using the flap described above, a satisfactory result being achieved.
Uterine preservation and vaginal reconstruction in a patient with congenital vaginal agenesis presenting with cyclic menouria.
Munire Erman-Akar, Ozlenen Ozkan, Omer Ozkan, Selcuk Yucel, Kemal Dolay, Fatma Ertugrul, Gamze Bektas
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Akdeniz University School of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey.
Herein we report the case of a patient with primary amenorrhea and cyclic menouria. The patient was a 20-year-old woman with primary amenorrhea and inability to achieve sexual intercourse. Clinical examination revealed normally developed labia majora and minora, clitoris, and external urethral orifice, but no vaginal opening. A mature female pubic hair pattern was present, and axillary hair development was normal. Breasts were normally developed. Abdominopelvic magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a remnant upper vagina and unicornuate uterus filled with fluid, and left-sided renal agenesis. Intraoperatively, a congenital vesicouterine fistulous tract was observed. The fistulous tract was completely resected. Vaginal reconstruction using a sigmoid colon pedicled flap was performed. The proximal part of the neovagina was connected to the remnant cervix, and a Foley catheter was left in the uterine cavity for 7 days to prevent obstruction. The patient has been menstruating regularly since the operation. Menouria might be an early sign of congenital vesicouterine fistula. Resection of the fistulous tract with uterine preservation might be considered in patients with vaginal agenesis.
Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Louisville, KY 40292, USA. Ronmdsurg@hotmail.com
An attractive umbilicus is an essential component of the abdominal wall. It defines the midline abdominal sulcus and adds to a shapely abdominal curvature. Certain procedures place the umbilicus at risk thus providing a need for a neoumbilicus. Three-hundred and twenty cases of abdominoplasties, panniculetomies, and TRAM flaps for breast reconstruction were reviewed. Five patients underwent an umbilical reconstruction after loss of the native umbilicus. A crescent-shaped incision was used to create an inferiorly based skin flap. The flap was inset to the abdominal fascia. A small full-thickness skin graft was used to form the superior hood. All patients attained an esthetically pleasing umbilicus with minimal scarring. No contracture, flap necrosis, or graft loss were noted. We present a novel, simple, and reliable technique of umbilical restoration. It circumvents the need for external scars and allows for achieving a naturally appearing umbilicus.
Department of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology, Campus Benjamin Franklin and Campus Mitte Charité, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review aims to update new techniques of pelvic exenteration including minimal invasive surgery, and discuss other aspects of this radical surgery, including worldwide differences. RECENT FINDINGS: Major advances are made since the first description of pelvic exenteration and the operation is still under evolution. Explorative laparoscopy prior to exenteration is a valuable alternative to laparotomy to elect candidates for pelvic exenteration. There are considerable differences with respect to indications, contraindications, preoperative staging and adjuvant therapy after exenteration in different countries. Advances in laparoscopic instruments also led to the laparoscopic exenteration. The main limiting step of the operation is urinary diversion. New techniques of laparoscopic-assisted and robotic-assisted techniques of urinary diversion have been reported that decrease the operation time. Vascularized muscle flaps are preferred by many surgeons to fill the empty pelvis and provide an acceptable vaginal reconstruction. J-pouch seems to be a safer technique than end-to-end coloanal anastomosis for bowel reconstruction. Developments in the bioengineering tissue for pelvic reconstruction are required. SUMMARY: Laparoscopy has the advantages of decreased blood loss, improved convalescence, lower incidence of wound infection and incisional hernia, short recovery periods, rapid return of bowel function, better pain control and improved cosmetics compared with laparotomy for pelvic exenteration. Magnification and improved visualization permits en-bloc dissection of tumor and good anastomosis technique. New techniques of urinary diversion, orthotopic neobladder and coloanal are promising.
Superiorly hinged blepharoplasty flap for reconstruction of medial upper eyelid defects following excision of xanthelasma palpebrum.
Queen Victoria Hospital, Corneoplastic Unit, East Grinstead, West Sussex, UK.
This paper documents an interventional case series which describes a novel technique for reconstructing large medial upper eyelid skin defects following excision of xanthelasma palpebrum. All visible upper eyelid xanthelasma is excised and a superiorly hinged blepharoplasty skin flap is created with a classic skin crease and lateral blepharoplasty incision, the latter acting as an effective 'back-cut' to allow medial advancement of the flap into the defect. Excess triangles of skin are excised and the flap is sutured without tension into the defect in a conventional manner. The patients selected were patients with medial upper eyelid skin defects not amenable to direct closure following surgical excision of xanthelasma. The main outcome measures were the upper eyelid aesthetic and functional outcome, postoperative complications and need for revisionary surgery. In our study seven patients with bilateral medial upper eyelid xanthelasma excised and reconstructed with this technique were identified. Good aesthetic outcome and high patient satisfaction without functional compromise was achieved in all patients at the last follow-up visit. Patient age ranged from 30-52 years old. Follow up ranged from 8 to 18 months. In conclusion, the superiorly hinged blepharoplasty skin flap is a novel and simple technique for the reconstruction of skin defects that are not amenable to direct closure following xanthelasma excision. It avoids the complications of skin grafting and non-surgical ablative methods, particularly in dark-skinned patients.
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100032, China.
BACKGROUND The use of the rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap in reconstruction is well documented. It can be used to fill defects in the walls of the chest, the abdomen, the groin and the perineum. In this study, details of observations on five patients who underwent vaginal reconstruction using a muscle-sparing vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (MS-VRAM) flap are presented. PATIENTS AND METHODS Between September 2006 and October 2007, five patients underwent vaginal reconstruction using a MS-VRAM flap. All patients had congenital absence of the vagina. RESULTS All MS-VRAM flaps survived completely. No complications occurred at the donor site of abdominal wall. In the course of 2-9 month follow-ups, the patients reported satisfaction, though they were unmarried and had no regular sexual partners. This study demonstrates that a new vagina can be created from the MS-VRAM flap and that the reconstruction is reliable, with low donor-site morbidity, easier surgical technique and shorter operation time. However, the major disadvantage of this technique is the conspicuous abdominal scar.
Eur Urol. 2008 Apr ;53 (4):856-7 18441535
Re: a new technique of vaginal reconstruction with the deep inferior epigastric perforator flap: a preliminary report.
University Children's Hospital, Department of Urology, Belgrade, Serbia.
Wang and colleagues described the use of fasciocutaneous flap based on deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) vessels for vaginal reconstruction. They presented four patients with congenital vaginal agenesis and one with vaginal tumor. The rhombus-shaped abdominal flap was designed according to the location of deep inferior epigastric vessels perforators. The size of the flap ranged from 9 x 12 to 11 x 12 cm. The flap was elevated without underlying muscle, dissecting perforators together with the pedicle-deep inferior epigastric vessels up to their origin. The fully mobilized flap was tabularized, transposed paravesically to the previously prepared vaginal bed, and anastomosed to vaginal introitus. Primary donor-site closure was accomplished in all patients with conspicuous scars. All flaps survived and the authors reported a normal appearance of external genitalia with sufficient neovaginal depth and width. During the short follow-up (6-14 mo), two patients reported satisfactory sexual intercourse.
Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Clinic, Istanbul, Turkey. email@example.com
BACKGROUND One of the main steps for satisfactory breast reconstruction is symmetrical nipple reconstruction in an ideal position and projection. Various techniques, using cartilage, bone, fat, and even hydroxyapatite crystals, have been proposed to overcome projection loss in late term. METHOD We present a new nipple reconstruction technique performed in 6 cases. In this technique, the nipple dome is nourished by a double pedicle and supported by lateral flaps. Nipple projection is secured with 4/0 nylon sutures, which are applied between pedicles. Skin excess is advanced to the donor areas of nipple flaps. RESULTS All patients were discharged the day after the operation, and nipple flaps healed well. No projection loss was noted in the 8- to 12-month follow-up period. Areola shape and consistency were acceptable. CONCLUSION Due to the presence of a double pedicle, this technique is especially helpful for patients with possible circulatory problems. Tension-free closure and rich blood supply to the nipple dome prevent loss of projection in the late term.
The use of peritoneal tissue mobilised with a novel laparoscopic technique to reconstruct a neovagina.
Department of Plastic Surgery, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
The use of the peritoneum to construct the new lining of the vagina was described 40 years ago. However, the technique required open laparotomy and extensive dissection of the peritoneum and this technical difficulty and morbidities associated with the procedure reduced the acceptance of this technique. Subsequently, outcomes achievable from any neo-vaginoplastic techniques for a vaginal deformity, regardless of the aetiology, have been problematic due to peritoneal reflection at the pelvic floor, lack of ideal tissues to line a neovagina, and cicatricial contracture. The advent of the endoscope renewed interest in using peritoneal tissues in vaginal reconstruction, and peritoneal tissue mobilisation using forceps to grasp the tissue from below has been described. Here, we use a novel device to push a segment of mobilised peritoneum caudally into the vault. We have used this technique successfully in 12 individuals with congenital vaginal agenesis. Under laparoscopic guidance and from the pelvic cavity, a novel instrument was used to push peritoneal tissue down to the introitus, incised, and sutured to the margin of the skin and mucous membrane to form a new introitus. All the new peritoneal linings survived and the diameter, depth, and moisture of the neovaginas allowed for satisfactory sexual intercourse and did not produce unpleasant odour or excessive secretion. Advantages of this operative technique include its simplicity, the reduced possibility of severe complications in the abdominal cavity, the avoidance of severe morbidity in the perineal region, and the production of a functional, hygienic vagina. It is our preferred and recommended method to reconstruct the vagina.
A new technique of vaginal reconstruction with the deep inferior epigastric perforator flap: a preliminary report.
Xiancheng Wang, Qun Qiao, Andrew Burd, Zhifei Liu, Ru Zhao, Kexin Song, Rui Feng, Ang Zeng, Yuming Zhao
Department of Plastic Surgery, Second Xiang Ya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan, China. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Vaginal reconstruction after tumor resection or in congenital vaginal agenesis remains a challenging area in surgery, with many techniques previously described underlining the continued search for an ideal method. In this preliminary report, a series of patients are presented who underwent vaginal reconstruction using a deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap. METHODS Between May of 2004 and February of 2005, five patients underwent vaginal reconstruction using the pedicled DIEP flap. Four patients had congenital vaginal agenesis and one had a complete vaginal resection because of a tumor. RESULTS The flaps ranged in size from 9 x 10 cm to 11 x 12 cm. All flaps survived, although one patient developed a posterior space hematoma that required draining. Of the five patients, two were sexually active and enjoyed satisfactory penetrative intercourse after reconstruction. CONCLUSIONS This series demonstrates that a new vagina can be created from the pedicled DIEP flap and that the reconstruction is reliable, with low donor-site morbidity. The major disadvantage of this technique is the conspicuous abdominal scar.