Growth of E. coli in the presence of alcohols of chain lengths 1 through 8 results in an increase in the relative abundance of phosphatidyl glycerol. This results primarily from the preferential inhibition of phosphatidyl ethanolamine synthesis. This inhibition appears to be unrelated to membrane fluidity or to changes in fatty acid composition caused by alcohols. Alcohol-induced changes in total fatty acid composition are reflected in all phospholipid classes. Phosphatidyl serine synthetase is proposed as the most likely site for the effects of alcohols on phospholipid synthesis.
Mesh-terms: War Crimes :: prevention & control; War Crimes :: prevention & control; War Crimes :: prevention & control; War Crimes :: prevention & control; War Crimes :: prevention & control; War Crimes :: prevention & control; War Crimes :: prevention & control; War Crimes :: prevention & control; War Crimes :: prevention & control; War Crimes :: prevention & control; War Crimes :: prevention & control; War Crimes :: prevention & control; War Crimes :: prevention & control; Keywords: phosphatidyl; alcohol; ethanolamine; phosphatidyl ethanolamine; preferential inhibition; coly; synthesy; cau; preferential; inhibition; propo; fatty acid; fatty; phospholipid; acid composition;
Biological Systems Engineering Department, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Genome-scale models have developed into a vital tool for rational metabolic engineering. These models balance cofactors and energetic requirements and determine biosynthetic precursor availability in response to environmental and genetic perturbations. In particular, allocation of additional reducing power is an important strategy for engineering potential biofuel production from microbes. Many potential biofuel solvents induce biomolecular changes on the host organism that are not yet captured by genome-scale models. Here, methods of construction for several biomass constituting equations are reviewed along with potential changes to cellular composition with potential biofuels exposure. The biomass constituting equations of potential host organisms with existing genome-scale models are compared side-by-side to explore their evolution over the years and to explore differences that arise when these equations are compiled by different research groups. Genome-scale model simulation results attempt to address and provide guidance for further research into:(i) whether inconsistencies in the biomass constituting equations are relevant to predictions of solvent production,(ii) what level of detail is necessary to accurately describe cellular composition, and (iii) future developments that may enable more accurate characterizations of biomolecular composition.
Hani Goodarzi, Bryson D Bennett, Sasan Amini, Marshall L Reaves, Alison K Hottes, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Saeed Tavazoie
Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.
Understanding the genetic basis of adaptation is a central problem in biology. However, revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms has been challenging as changes in fitness may result from perturbations to many pathways, any of which may contribute relatively little. We have developed a combined experimental/computational framework to address this problem and used it to understand the genetic basis of ethanol tolerance in Escherichia coli. We used fitness profiling to measure the consequences of single-locus perturbations in the context of ethanol exposure. A module-level computational analysis was then used to reveal the organization of the contributing loci into cellular processes and regulatory pathways (e.g. osmoregulation and cell-wall biogenesis) whose modifications significantly affect ethanol tolerance. Strikingly, we discovered that a dominant component of adaptation involves metabolic rewiring that boosts intracellular ethanol degradation and assimilation. Through phenotypic and metabolomic analysis of laboratory-evolved ethanol-tolerant strains, we investigated naturally accessible pathways of ethanol tolerance. Remarkably, these laboratory-evolved strains, by and large, follow the same adaptive paths as inferred from our coarse-grained search of the fitness landscape.
Biomembrane Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow, India.
The growth rate of Escherichia coli was stimulated when cells were in media containing lead up to a concentration of 300 ppm. Higher concentrations inhibited growth. Metal analysis revealed that in the presence of lead E. coli concentrates 22.8 mg of lead per gram (dry weight) of cells. Analysis of cellular subfractions indicated that membrane fraction concentrated over 95% of the lead taken up by cells, of which a major portion was found to be associated with membrane lipids. Alterations in alkaline phosphatase, Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activities and the carbohydrate and phospholipid contents in membrane fractions were also observed when cells were grown in the presence of lead. A time- and concentration-dependent increase in the release of carbohydrates by the cells was also evident. The results suggest that besides thriving in higher lead surroundings, E. coli possess a marked ability to concentrate substantial amount of inorganic lead.
Isolation and characterization of ethanol-tolerant mutants of Escherichia coli KO11 for fuel ethanol production.
Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611, USA.
Genetically engineered Escherichia coli KO11 is capable of efficiently producing ethanol from all sugar constituents of lignocellulose but lacks the high ethanol tolerance of yeasts currently used for commercial starch-based ethanol processes. Using an enrichment method which selects alternatively for ethanol tolerance during growth in broth and for ethanol production on solid medium, mutants of KO11 with increased ethanol tolerance were isolated which can produce more than 60 g ethanol L-1 from xylose in 72 h. Ethanol concentrations and yields achieved by the LY01 mutant with xylose exceed those reported for recombinant strains of Saccharomyces and Zymomonas mobilis, both of which have a high native ethanol tolerance.
The growth of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 and of C9, an ethanol-resistant mutant of this strain, at different ethanol concentrations and temperatures was characterized. After ethanol addition, cultures continued to grow for 1 to 2 h at rates similar to those observed before ethanol was added and then entered a period of growth arrest, the duration of which was a function of the age of inocula. After this period, cultures grew at an exponential rate that was a function of ethanol concentration. The wild-type strain showed a higher energy of activation for growth than the ethanol-tolerant derivative. The optimum growth temperature of the wild type decreased as the concentration of the ethanol challenge increased, whereas the optimum growth temperature for C9 remained constant. The results are discussed in terms of what is known about the effects of ethanol and temperature on membrane composition and fluidity.
Lipid synthesis was examined in Escherichia coli cells at different stage of cell division. Exponentially growing cells were pulse-labeled with appropriate isotopes for 0.1 generation time, inactivated, and separated by size on a sucrose gradient. An abrupt increase in the rate of lipid synthesis occurred which was coincident with the initiation of cross walls. In contrast, the rate of protein synthesis during this same interval remained constant, resulting in an increased lipid/protein ratio in dividing cells. No changes in the composition of phospholipid head groups, fatty acids, or phospholipid molecular species were observed in cells at different stages of division. The observed increase in the rate of lipid synthesis may reflect a means by which the activities of membrane-associated enzymes are modulated during cross wall formation.
Both ethanol and hexanol inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, but their effects on the organization and composition of the cell envelope were quite different. Hexanol (7.8 x 10(-3) mM) increased membrane fluidity, whereas ethanol (0.67 M) had little effect. During growth in the presence of ethanol, the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids increased. The opposite change was induced by hexanol. Unlike hexanol, growth in the presence of ethanol resulted in the production of un-cross-linked peptidoglycan with subsequent lysis. Salt (0.3 M) protected cells against ethanol-induced lysis but potentiated growth inhibition by hexanol. Mutants isolated for resistance to ethanol-induced lysis synthesized cross-linked peptidoglycan during growth in the presence of ethanol but remained sensitive to hexanol. A general hypothesis was presented to explain the differential effects of ethanol and hexanol. All alcohols are viewed as similar in having both an apolar chain capable of interacting with hydrophobic environments and a hydroxyl function capable of hydrogen bonding. The differential effects of short-chain alcohols may represent effects due to the high molar concentrations of hydrogen bonding groups with an apolar end within the environment. These may replace bound water in some cases. With longer-chain alcohols such as hexanol, the effects of the acyl chain would dominate, and limitations of solubility and cellular integrity would mask these hydroxyl effects.
Alterations in the phospholipid composition of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides and other bacteria induced by Tris.
Alterations in the phospholipid head group composition of most strains of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides, as well as Rhodopseudomonas capsulata and Paracoccus denitrificans, occurred when cells were grown in medium supplemented with Tris. Growth of R. sphaeroides M29-5 in Tris-supplemented medium resulted in the accumulation of N-acylphosphatidylserine (NAPS) to as much as 40% of the total whole-cell phospholipid, whereas NAPS represented approximately 28 an 33% of the total phospholipid when R. capsulata and P. denitrificans respectively, were grown in medium containing 20 mM Tris. The accumulation of NAPS occurred primarily at the expense of phosphatidylethanolamine in both whole cells and isolated membranes of R. sphaeroides and had no detectable effect on cell growth under either chemoheterotrophic or photoheterotrophic conditions. Yeast extract (0.1%) and Casamino Acids (1.0%) were found to be antagonistic to the Tris-induced (20 mM) alteration in the phospholipid composition of R. sphaeroides. The wild-type strains R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 and RS2 showed no alteration in their phospholipid composition when they were grown in medium supplemented with Tris. In all strains of Rhodospirillaceae tested, as well as in P. denitrificans, NAPS represented between 1.0 and 2.0% of the total phospholipid when cells were grown in the absence of Tris.[32P]orthophosphoric acid entered NAPS rapidly in strains of R. sphaeroides that do (strain M29-5) and do not (strain 2.4.1) accumulate this phospholipid in response to Tris. Our data indicate that the phospholipid head group composition of many Rhodospirillaceae strains, as well as P. denitrificans, is easily manipulated; thus, these bacteria may provide good model systems for studying the effects of these modifications on membrane structure and function in a relatively unperturbed physiological system.
Zymomonas mobilis is an alcohol-tolerant microorganism which is potentially useful for the commercial production of ethanol. This organism was found to contain cardiolipin, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylcholine as major phospholipids. Vaccenic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, with lesser amounts of myristic, palmitic, and palmitoleic acids. No branched-chain or cyclopropane fatty acids were found. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that ethanol induces the synthesis of phospholipids enriched in vaccenic acid in Escherichia coli (L. O. Ingram, J. Bacteriol. 125:670-678, 1976). The fatty acid composition of Z. mobilis, an obligately ethanol-producing microorganism, represents an extreme of the trend observed in E. coli. In Z. mobilis, vaccenic acid represents over 75% of the acyl chains in the polar membrane lipids. Glucose and ethanol had no major effect on the fatty acid composition of Z. mobilis. However, both glucose and ethanol caused a decrease in phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol and an increase in cardiolipin and phosphatidylcholine. Ethanol also caused a dose-dependent reduction in the lipid-to-protein ratios of crude membranes. The lipid composition of Z. mobilis may represent an evolutionary adaptation for survival in the presence of ethanol.
In Bacillus subtilis, the fatty acid moiety of the phospholipids was affected differently during growth in the presence of 1.1 M-methanol or 0.7 M-ethanol, though at these concentrations methanol and ethanol had the same effects on growth rate and completely inhibited sporulation. Synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol was also strongly inhibited and the amount of total cell phospholipids was reduced by 50% by both alcohols. The composition of fatty acids, especially the relative concentration of 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, was modified only by ethanol; in bacteria grown in the presence of methanol, changes in fatty acid composition were negligible. In non-sporulating mutants, synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol was much less affected than in the wild-type and synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine was increased. In these strains, fatty acid composition was also modified by ethanol but unaffected by methanol.
Other papers by authors:
Increased furfural tolerance due to overexpression of NADH-dependent oxidoreductase FucO in Escherichia coli strains engineered for the production of ethanol and lactate.
Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, Box 110700, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
Furfural is an important fermentation inhibitor in hemicellulose sugar syrups derived from woody biomass. The metabolism of furfural by NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases, such as YqhD (low K(m) for NADPH), is proposed to inhibit the growth and fermentation of xylose in Escherichia coli by competing with biosynthesis for NADPH. The discovery that the NADH-dependent propanediol oxidoreductase (FucO) can reduce furfural provided a new approach to improve furfural tolerance. Strains that produced ethanol or lactate efficiently as primary products from xylose were developed. These strains included chromosomal mutations in yqhD expression that permitted the fermentation of xylose broths containing up to 10 mM furfural. Expression of fucO from plasmids was shown to increase furfural tolerance by 50% and to permit the fermentation of 15 mM furfural. Product yields with 15 mM furfural were equivalent to those of control strains without added furfural (85% to 90% of the theoretical maximum). These two defined genetic traits can be readily transferred to enteric biocatalysts designed to produce other products. A similar strategy that minimizes the depletion of NADPH pools by native detoxification enzymes may be generally useful for other inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic sugar streams and with other organisms.
Injection of air into the headspace improves fermentation of phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse by Escherichia coli MM170.
Department of Microbiology & Cell Science, University of Florida, Box 110700, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. email@example.com
Microaeration (injecting air into the headspace) improved the fermentation of hemicellulose hydrolysates obtained from the phosphoric acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 170°C for 10 min. In addition, with 10% slurries of phosphoric acid pretreated bagasse (180°C, 10 min), air injection into the headspace promoted xylose utilization and increased ethanol yields from 0.16 to 0.20 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight using a liquefaction plus simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process (L+SScF). This process was scaled up to 80 L using slurries of acid pretreated bagasse (96 h incubation; 0.6L of air/min into the headspace) with ethanol yields of 312-347 L (82-92 gal) per tone (dry matter), corresponding to 0.25 and 0.27 g/g bagasse (dry weight). Injection of small amounts of air into the headspace may provide a convenient alternative to subsurface sparging that avoids problems of foaming, sparger hygiene, flotation of particulates, and phase separation.
Effect of reduced sulfur compounds on the fermentation of phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse by ethanologenic Escherichia coli.
Department of Microbiology & Cell Science, University of Florida, Box 110700, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
The addition of reduced sulfur compounds (thiosulfate, cysteine, sodium hydrosulfite, and sodium metabisulfite) increased growth and fermentation of dilute acid hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse by ethanologenic Escherichia coli (strains LY180, EMFR9, and MM160). With sodium metabisulfite (0.5mM), toxicity was sufficiently reduced that slurries of pretreated biomass (10% dry weight including fiber and solubles) could be fermented by E. coli strain MM160 without solid-liquid separation or cleanup of sugars. A 6-h liquefaction step was added to improve mixing. Sodium metabisulfite also caused spectral changes at wavelengths corresponding to furfural and soluble products from lignin. Glucose and cellobiose were rapidly metabolized. Xylose utilization was improved by sodium metabisulfite but remained incomplete after 144 h. The overall ethanol yield for this liquefaction plus simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process was 0.20 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight, 250 L/tonne (61 gal/US ton).
Simplified process for ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using hydrolysate-resistant Escherichia coli strain MM160.
C C Geddes, M T Mullinnix, I U Nieves, J J Peterson, R W Hoffman, S W York, L P Yomano, E N Miller, K T Shanmugam, L O Ingram
Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
Hexose and pentose sugars from phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse were co-fermented to ethanol in a single vessel (SScF), eliminating process steps for solid-liquid separation and sugar cleanup. An initial liquefaction step (L) with cellulase was included to improve mixing and saccharification (L+SScF), analogous to a corn ethanol process. Fermentation was enabled by the development of a hydrolysate-resistant mutant of Escherichia coli LY180, designated MM160. Strain MM160 was more resistant than the parent to inhibitors (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and acetate) formed during pretreatment. Bagasse slurries containing 10% and 14% dry weight (fiber plus solubles) were tested using pretreatment temperatures of 160-190°C (1% phosphoric acid, 10 min). Enzymatic saccharification and inhibitor production both increased with pretreatment temperature. The highest titer (30 g/L ethanol) and yield (0.21 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight) were obtained after incubation for 122 h using 14% dry weight slurries of pretreated bagasse (180°C).
Genetic changes that increase 5-hydroxymethyl furfural resistance in ethanol-producing Escherichia coli LY180.
Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA.
The ability of a biocatalyst to tolerate furan inhibitors present in hemicellulose hydrolysates is important for the production of renewable chemicals. This study shows EMFR9, a furfural-tolerant mutant of ethanologenic E. coli LY180, has also acquired tolerance to 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF). The mechanism of action of 5-HMF and furfural appear similar. Furan tolerance results primarily from lower expression of yqhD and dkgA, two furan reductases with a low K(m) for NADPH. Furan tolerance was also increased by adding plasmids encoding a NADPH/NADH transhydrogenase (pntAB). Together, these results support the hypothesis that the NADPH-dependent reduction of furans by YqhD and DkgA inhibits growth by competing with biosynthesis for this limiting cofactor.
Metabolic Flux Control at the Pyruvate Node in an Anaerobic Escherichia coli with Active Pyruvate Dehydrogenase.
Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611.
During anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli, pyruvate formate-lyase (PFL) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) channel pyruvate towards a mixture of fermentation products. We have introduced a third branch at the pyruvate node in a mutant of E. coli with a mutation in pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH*) that renders the enzyme less sensitive to inhibition by NADH. The key starting enzymes of the three branches at the pyruvate node in such a mutant, PDH*, PFL and LDH, have different metabolic potential and kinetic properties. In such a mutant (strain QZ2), pyruvate flux through LDH was about 30% with the remainder through PFL indicating that LDH is a preferred route of pyruvate conversion over PDH*. In a pfl mutant (strain YK167) with both PDH* and LDH activities, flux through PDH* was about 33% of the total confirming the ability of LDH to outcompete the PDH pathway for pyruvate in vivo. Only in the absence of LDH (strain QZ3), pyruvate carbon was equally distributed between PDH* and PFL pathways. A pfl mutant with LDH and PDH* activities as well as a pfl, ldh double mutant with PDH* activity had a surprisingly low YATP (about 7.0 grams cells per mole ATP ) compared to 10.9 grams cells per mole ATP for the wild type. The lower YATP suggests the operation of a futile energy cycle in the absence of PFL in this strain. An understanding of the controls at the pyruvate node during anaerobic growth is expected to provide unique insights into rational metabolic engineering of E. coli and related bacteria for production of various bio-based products at high rate and yield.
Optimizing the saccharification of sugar cane bagasse using dilute phosphoric acid followed by fungal cellulases.
Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, Box 110700, Gainesville, FL 32611, United States.
A low level of phosphoric acid (1% w/w on dry bagasse basis, 160 degrees C and above, 10 min) was shown to effectively hydrolyze the hemicellulose in sugar cane bagasse into monomers with minimal side reactions and to serve as an effective pre-treatment for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Up to 45% of the remaining water-insoluble solids (WIS) was digested to sugar monomers by a low concentration of Biocellulase W (0.5 filter paper unit/gWIS) supplemented with beta-glucosidase, although much higher levels of cellulase (100-fold) were required for complete hydrolysis. After neutralization and nutrient addition, phosphoric acid syrups of hemicellulose sugars were fermented by ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY160 without further purification. Fermentation of these syrups was preceded by a lag that increased with increased pre-treatment temperature. Further improvements in organisms and optimization of steam treatments may allow the co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose, eliminating need for liquid-solid separation, sugar purification, and separate fermentations.
Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, UF Box 110700, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
The fermentative metabolism of glucose was redirected to succinate as the primary product without mutating any genes encoding the native mixed-acid fermentation pathway or redox reactions. Two changes in peripheral pathways were together found to increase succinate yield fivefold:(i) increased expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and (ii) inactivation of the glucose phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system. These two changes increased net ATP production, increased the pool of phosphoenolpyruvate available for carboxylation, and increased succinate production. Modest further improvements in succinate yield were made by inactivating the pflB gene, encoding pyruvate formate lyase, resulting in an Escherichia coli pathway that is functionally similar to the native pathway in Actinobacillus succinogenes and other succinate-producing rumen bacteria.
Genetic engineering of Enterobacter asburiae strain JDR-1 for efficient D(--) lactic acid production from hemicellulose hydrolysate.
Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611-0700, USA.
In the dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulose, xylose substituted with alpha-1,2-methylglucuronate is released as methylglucuronoxylose (MeGAX), which cannot be fermented by biocatalysts currently used to produce biofuels and chemicals. Enterobacter asburiae JDR-1, isolated from colonized wood, efficiently fermented both MeGAX and xylose in acid hydrolysates of sweetgum xylan. Deletion of pflB and als genes in this bacterium modified the native mixed acid fermentation pathways to one for homolactate production. The resulting strain, Enterobacter asburiae L1, completely utilized both xylose and MeGAX in a dilute acid hydrolysate of sweetgum xylan and produced lactate approximating 100% of the theoretical maximum yield. Enterobacter asburiae JDR-1 offers a platform to develop efficient biocatalysts for production of fuels and chemicals from hemicellulose hydrolysates of hardwood and agricultural residues.
Deletion of methylglyoxal synthase gene (mgsA) increased sugar co-metabolism in ethanol-producing Escherichia coli.
Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
The use of lignocellulose as a source of sugars for bioproducts requires the development of biocatalysts that maximize product yields by fermenting mixtures of hexose and pentose sugars to completion. In this study, we implicate mgsA encoding methylglyoxal synthase (and methylglyoxal) in the modulation of sugar metabolism. Deletion of this gene (strain LY168) resulted in the co-metabolism of glucose and xylose, and accelerated the metabolism of a 5-sugar mixture (mannose, glucose, arabinose, xylose and galactose) to ethanol.
Latest similar papers:
Seasonal changes in phospholipid class and class-specific fatty acid composition associated with the onset of freeze tolerance in third-instar larvae of Eurosta solidaginis.
Department of Biology, Colgate University, 13 Oak Drive, Hamilton, New York 13346.
Abstract Third-instar larvae of the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae) are freeze tolerant in winter. During freezing, cell membranes must compensate for both low temperature and partial dehydration. Documented adaptations to low temperature include increased fatty acid unsaturation and enrichment of cone-shaped phosphatides, both of which inhibit formation of gel phase lipid domains. These changes appear inconsistent with adaptations known to prevent formation of the hexagonal II phospholipid phase at low water activities, namely, increased fatty acid saturation and increased proportions of cylindrical phosphatides. To address these inconsistencies, changes in E. solidaginis phospholipid composition and class-specific fatty acid composition were studied from August to November 2002. Cylindrical phosphatides, mostly phosphatidylcholine (PC), increased transiently and significantly, from 35% of the total to nearly 50%, during the transition from freeze susceptible to freeze tolerant. Monoenes in both PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) represented 35% of total fatty acids in freeze-susceptible larvae but accumulated in PC to 48% and in PE to 42% in freeze-tolerant larvae. Moreover, PC accumulated the most unsaturated acid in this species, 18:3(n-3), to a significantly greater degree than PE. This combination of changes may represent a finely tailored response to both low temperatures and freeze-induced dehydration.
Lipid classes and fatty acid composition of the tropical nudibranch mollusks Chromodoris sp. and Phyllidia coelestis.
Institute of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Palchevskogo str., 17, 690041, Vladivostok, Russia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Two nudibranch mollusks, Chromodoris sp. and Phyllidia coelestis, collected from tropical waters of the Northwestern Pacific, were analyzed for lipids. The aim of this study was to fill the gap in knowledge of lipid biochemistry of mollusks. Phospholipids (PL) were the dominating lipid class followed by sterols (13%). Neutral lipids were not detected in Chromodoris sp. By contrast, P. coelestis contained TAG, diacylglyceryl ether, long chain alcohol and esters of sterols. Among PL, PC was predominant (about 50%); PE, PS and CAEP were almost in equal proportions. Sixty five FA were identified as methyl esters and N-acyl pyrrolidides by GC-MS. The sea slugs exhibited a wide diversity of FA. The common marine n-3 PUFA, 20:5n-6 and 22:6n-3, constituted 0.6-1.3% of the total FA, whereas n-6 PUFA, 22:4n-6, 20:4n-6, and 18:2n-6, were the main (25%). Among monounsaturated FA, 7-21:1 was the main (up to 6.2%). The non-methylene-interrupted (NMI) FA were found (9.4 and 12.4%), including the known 5,11-20:2, 5,13-20:2, 7,13-22:2, 7,15-22:2 and a novel isomer 7,13-21:2 (up to 3.9%). The pathway of its biosynthesis was suggested. A series of very long chain FA (VLC FA), with the main 5,9-25:2 and 5,9-26:2, were identified. High level of VLC FA (8.7 and 11.7%) in sea slugs is apparently the result of predation on sponges. Another unique feature concerned a high abundance of various odd and branched FA (16.7 and 34%), which could have originated from the dietary origin or symbiotic bacteria. This is the first report on lipid and FA composition of nudibranchs.
Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Balıkesir. Balıkesir. Turkey.
The fatty acid compositions of Nepeta viscida, N. cilicica, N. crinita, N. nuda ssp. glandulifera and N. aristata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main free fatty acids were found as linolenic acid (49.8-58.5%), linoleic acid (10.9-23.5%), oleic acid (11.5-19.2%), palmitic acid (5.2-6.8%) and stearic acid (2.0-3.7%) and, total fatty acid compositions of species were analyzed and results were found as 36.2-49.8%, 17.1-25.8%, 15.4-25.8%, 6.4-7.8%, and 2.7-4.1%, respectively.
Biofizika. ;51 (4):704-9 16909850
The process of proton transfer across the membrane via the external proton channel in bacteriorhodopsin is considered. A possible amino acid composition of the channel is suggested and the step-by-step mechanism of proton transfer is proposed which agrees with the experimental data. The rate of proton transfer between fixed centers at several chains of the channel was estimated for which the spectroscopic data are available.
United States Department of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration, Agricultural Research, Plant Physiology Institute, Beltsville, Maryland 20705.
The fatty acid composition of wheat seedling roots changed in response to temperature. As temperature declined, the level of linolenic acid increased and the level of linoleic acid decreased. The distribution of phospholipid classes was not influenced by temperature. Phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine were the predominant phospholipids isolated and comprised 85% of the total lipid phosphorus. Smaller quantities of phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl inositol, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidyl serine were isolated. The fatty acid composition of phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine were the same and temperature affected the fatty acid composition of both phospholipids in the same manner.Growth in the presence of the substituted pyridazinone, BASF 13 338 (4-chloro-5-dimethylamino-2-phenyl-3(2H)pyridazinone), reduced the level of linolenic acid and increased the level of linoleic acid in the phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, and total polar lipid fractions. BASF 13 338 did not affect the levels of palmitate, stearate, and oleate or the distribution of phospholipid classes.Respiration rates of wheat root tips were measured over a range of temperatures. The respiration rate declined as the temperature decreased. Neither the temperature at which the tissue was grown nor BASF 13 338 treatment influenced the ability of root tips to respire at any temperature from 4 to 30 C. The results indicated that the relative proportion of linolenic acid to linoleic acid did not influence the plants ability to grow and respire over the range of temperatures tested.
Effects of Monovalent and Divalent Salts on the Phospholipid and Fatty Acid Compositions of a Halotolerant Planococcus sp.
[This corrects the article on p. 581 in vol. 52.].
Laboratoire de Biologie et Physiologie Cellulaires Végétales, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, 7021 Zarzouna, Tunisie. email@example.com
Changes in lipid composition were investigated on maize roots and shoots under aluminum stress. After 4d exposure to 100 microM Al, root growth was inhibited while shoot growth was not affected. In roots, the decrease of the DBI (double bond index) of total fatty acids may signal a decrease in membrane fluidity. The total lipids (TL) decreased by 49%, but phospholipids (PL), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) increased to approximately 3-fold. The MGDG increased to 2-fold but no significant change was found in the DGDG. The steryl lipids (SL) increased by 69%. The SL/PL ratio decreased from 2.64 to 1.52 and the MGDG/DGDG ratio increased from 0.45 to 1.06 in roots of Al-stressed plants. Al leads to oxidative stress in roots of treated plants as indicated by the increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. In shoots, changes in fatty acid composition were associated with an increase of the DBI in all lipid classes except that of the DGDG decreased. The PG was the lipid class which shows the large variation of fatty acid composition. No significant changes were found either for TL, PL, SL or MDA concentrations in shoots of Al-treated plants. While PE levels did not show significant change, PI and PG increased and PC decreased. However, the Al caused 87% decrease in the GL levels. The MGDG and DGDG decreased to 19- and 8-fold, respectively. The deleterious effects of Al on polar lipids could be caused by a direct intervention of Al on plasma membrane and/or alteration of cell metabolism.
Changes in content and fatty acid profiles of total lipids and sulfolipids in the halophyte Crithmum maritimum under salt stress.
Laboratoire d'Adaptation des Plantes aux Stress Abiotiques, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif, Tunisia.
In the halophyte Crithmum maritimum, the sulfolipid content increased considerably in the presence of NaCl. There were no significant changes in the total fatty acid composition of sulfolipids during salt treatment, except for linoleic and linolenic acids. In comparison to the control plants, sulfolipids in NaCl-treated plants showed a decrease in the percentage of unsaturated fatty acid (C18:3), and a corresponding increase in the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids (C18:2). As a whole, the data reported in this work suggest that sulfolipds may be one important aspect of strategies involved in salt tolerance of this halophyte.
The composition and sequence specificity of Pro-Ala-Lys-OH for the thrombolytic activities of P6A and related oligopeptides.
College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100083, PR China.
The in vitro and in vivo thrombolytic activities of Ala-Arg-Pro-Ala-Lys-OH, its analogs and the related peptides were assayed. The results indicate that when (5)Lys of Ala-Arg-Pro-Ala-Lys-OH is changed into (5)Arg, and (3)Lys of Pro-Ala-Lys-OH is changed into (3)Arg the thrombolytic activities are collapsed; when Pro-Ala-Lys-OH is changed into Ala-Pro-Lys-OH, and Ala-Arg-Pro-Ala-Lys-OH is changed into Ala-Arg-Ala-Pro-Lys-OH the thrombolytic activities are also collapsed; when (5)Lys of Ala-Arg-Pro-Ala-Lys-OH is changed into (5)nLeu the thrombolytic activities are again collapsed. All of the results indicate that for the thrombolytic activities of Ala-Arg-Pro-Ala-Lys-OH and the related peptides Pro-Ala-Lys-OH exhibits either amino acid composition specificity or sequence specificity. The composition and sequence specificity of Pro-Ala-Lys-OH reflects its rule as the pharmacophore of P6A and the related peptides.
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Institute of Clinical Science, Royal Group of Hospitals, Belfast BT12 6BJ, Northern Ireland, U.K. I.Young@qub.ac.uk
Lipoprotein oxidation is a key early stage in the development of atherosclerosis. Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is initiated by both enzyme-mediated and non-enzymic mechanisms in vivo, and oxidized LDL has many atherogenic properties. Oxidation of LDL in vivo is likely to be influenced by local environmental factors, such as pH. The composition of LDL is also important, including such factors as antioxidant content, fatty acid composition and particle size.