Potassium citrate and potassium gluconate versus potassium chloride. Experimental evaluation of relative intestinal toxicity.
Center for Mineral Metabolism and Clinical Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 75235-8885, USA.
BACKGROUND: Potassium supplements may cause mucosal damage of the gastrointestinal tract. AIM: To evaluate the effect of a new potassium supplement, potassium-magnesium citrate (K-Mag), on upper gastrointestinal mucosa and to compare it with an older potassium supplement, potassium citrate (Urocit-K). METHODS: A randomized and double-blind study was conducted utilizing 36 healthy adults. Subjects were randomized into three groups: K-Mag (70 mmol/day K, 35 mmol/day citrate and 17.6 mmol/day Mg); Urocit-K (70 mmol/day K and 23.4 mmol/day citrate), and placebo. All subjects took 5 tablets b.d. of the allocated drug and 2 mg t.d.s. of glycopyrrolate for 7 days. On day 8, stool was examined for occult blood, a symptom score was calculated and an oesophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed. Mucosal lesions were scored at five anatomic sites. RESULTS: Demographic characteristics and symptom score were similar in the three groups (< 10% with more than mild symptoms). There were no significant differences in the endoscopic scores at any site examined nor in the total scores among the three groups. Erosion or ulcers were found in 180% of K-Mag, 23% of Urocit-K and 17% of the placebo group. CONCLUSION: Short-term use of K-Mag does not appear to induce lesions in the upper gastrointestinal mucosa and its oral tolerance is similar to Urocit-K or placebo.
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Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
We experimentally and theoretically study the coincidence count rate for down-converted x-ray photons. Because of photoionization, parametric down-conversion at x-ray wavelengths generally involves loss and the theoretical description requires a Langevin approach. By working in a transmission geometry (Laue) rather than in the Bragg geometry of previous experiments, we obtain an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of 12.5, and find agreement between experiment and theory.
The utility of repeat enzyme immunoassay testing for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection: A systematic review of the literature.
Department of Internal Medicine, John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, 1900 W. Polk St, Chicago, IL 60607, USA.
Over the last 20 years, the prevalence of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile (C. diff) disease has increased. While multiple tests are available for the diagnosis of C. diff infection, enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing for toxin is the most used. Repeat EIA testing, although of limited utility, is common in medical practice. To assess the utility of repeat EIA testing to diagnose C. diff infections. Systematic literature review. Eligible studies performed >1 EIA test for C. diff toxin and were published in English. Electronic searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE were performed and bibliographies of review articles and conference abstracts were hand searched. Of 805 citations identified, 32 were reviewed in detail and nine were included in the final review. All studies except one were retrospective chart reviews. Seven studies had data on number of participants (32,526), and the overall reporting of test setting and patient characteristics was poor. The prevalence of C. diff infection ranged from 9.1% to 18.5%. The yield of the first EIA test ranged from 8.4% to 16.6%, dropping to 1.5-4.7% with a second test. The utility of repeat testing was evident in outbreak settings, where the yield of repeat testing was 5%. Repeat C. diff testing for hospitalized patients has low clinical utility and may be considered in outbreak settings or when the pre-test probability of disease is high. Future studies should aim to identify patients with a likelihood of disease and determine the utility of repeat testing compared with empiric treatment.
Nature. 2012 Aug 30;488 (7413):603-8 22932384
T E Glover, D M Fritz, M Cammarata, T K Allison, Sinisa Coh, J M Feldkamp, H Lemke, D Zhu, Y Feng, R N Coffee, M Fuchs, S Ghimire, J Chen, S Shwartz, D A Reis, S E Harris, J B Hastings
Advanced Light Source Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. email@example.com
Light-matter interactions are ubiquitous, and underpin a wide range of basic research fields and applied technologies. Although optical interactions have been intensively studied, their microscopic details are often poorly understood and have so far not been directly measurable. X-ray and optical wave mixing was proposed nearly half a century ago as an atomic-scale probe of optical interactions but has not yet been observed owing to a lack of sufficiently intense X-ray sources. Here we use an X-ray laser to demonstrate X-ray and optical sum-frequency generation. The underlying nonlinearity is a reciprocal-space probe of the optically induced charges and associated microscopic fields that arise in an illuminated material. To within the experimental errors, the measured efficiency is consistent with first-principles calculations of microscopic optical polarization in diamond. The ability to probe optical interactions on the atomic scale offers new opportunities in both basic and applied areas of science.
Extrinsic electronic transport in La(0.7)(Sr,Ca)(0.3)MnO(3) films deposited on step edges and bicrystal substrates.
Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, RV Nagar, Kalapet, Puducherry 605014, India. IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, Postfach 270116, D-01171 Dresden, Germany.
In this paper, the electronic transport of La(0.7)(Sr,Ca)(0.3)MnO(3) films grown by pulsed laser deposition on a LaAlO(3)(001) substrate with deep parallel structured steps and a 30° symmetric bicrystal SrTiO(3)(001) substrate have been discussed. The electronic transport properties have been related to the well-known extrinsic transport of bulk manganite compounds. The spin-glass-like behavior with a characteristic peak at 20 K and domain formation at the grain boundary is observed. Further, it has been quantified from the resonant tunneling model that mixed magnetic interactions play a significant role in the manganite films deposited on step edges.
IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, Dresden, Germany. A.Reisner@ifw-dresden.de
We report on the growth of c-axis oriented thin films of NbFe(2) prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Variation of the deposition conditions results in variation of the composition of the Nb(1-y)Fe(2+y) films in the range from Nb rich to Fe rich films. Films near the stoichiometric composition (y ≈ 0) are the most interesting. However, microstructural investigations of these films reveal two kinds of grain, which exhibit different shape, epitaxial relation and chemical composition. The different chemical compositions of opposing doping character result in two magnetic phases confirmed by means of magnetization and Hall measurements. This investigation demonstrates the possibility of NbFe(2) thin film growth and discusses the microstructural inhomogeneities occurring.
Treatment with tirofiban for acute coronary syndrome (ACS): a systematic review and network analysis.
Kleijnen Systematic Reviews, Unit 6, Escrick Business Park, Riccall Road, Escrick, York YO19 6FD, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of tirofiban in comparison to usual care or other GPIIb/IIIa antagonists (eptifibatide and abciximab). Results were analysed by drug administration with planned percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or as medical management without planned PCI, and separately for STEMI or NSTE ACS patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A systematic review was performed of randomized controlled trials of tirofiban, abciximab, eptifibatide or usual care given to patients with acute coronary syndrome. Nine databases were searched up to March 2010. Pair-wise meta-analysis was used to combine all available direct comparisons; indirect comparisons and network analysis were performed when this was not possible. The primary outcome was MACE (major adverse cardiac event). RESULTS The search yielded 8, 119 records and 50 trials were included (total number of patients = 52,958). Compared to usual care, high and medium-dose tirofiban (25 and 10 µg/kg/min) administered with planned PCI reduced MACE at 30 days for patients with STEMI (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.45, 0.99; RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.10, 0.80), but was not effective as a medical management. Medium-dose tirofiban (10 µg/kg/min) administered with planned PCI or low dose (0.4 µg/kg/min) as medical management reduced the risk of MACE for patients with NSTE ACS (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.21, 0.75; RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.41, 0.83) in comparison to usual care, but at the expense of increased thrombocytopenia (RR 3.26, 95% CI 1.31, 8.13). Evidence from RCTs and network analysis indicated tirofiban and abciximab were equally effective and safe. Comparing tirofiban and eptifibatide treatment by indirect and network analysis produced inconclusive results. CONCLUSIONS Tirofiban was more effective than usual care for STEMI and NSTE ACS patients receiving planned PCI, and NSTE ACS patients receiving medical management. Tirofiban and abciximab were equally effective. Comparisons of tirofiban and eptifibatide were inconclusive.
IFW Dresden, PO Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden, Germany. email@example.com
Any tip functionalization of carbon nanotubes, for which the relative orientation between their (metallic) catalyst particle and the nanotube axis is essential, requires a detailed knowledge of the nature of the internal interface between the particle and the outgrown tube. In the present work, this interface is characterized with atomic precision using state-of-the-art low-voltage aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy in combination with molecular dynamics simulations for the case of hard-magnetically terminated carbon nanotubes. Our results indicate that the physical principle based upon which the interfacial metal facet is chosen is a reduction of the desorption energy for carbon.
Neurology. 2011 Aug 30;77 (9):883-7 21795650
Pilot trial of IOM duty hour recommendations in neurology residency programs: unintended consequences.
Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202, USA firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE To study the potential effect of the 2008 Institute of Medicine (IOM) work duty hour (WDH) recommendations on neurology residency programs. METHODS This study evaluated resident sleepiness, personal study hours, quality of life, and satisfaction and faculty satisfaction during a control month using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education WDH requirements and during an intervention month using the IOM WDH recommendations. Resident participation in both schedules was mandatory, but both resident and faculty participation in the outcome measures was voluntary. RESULTS Thirty-four residents (11 postgraduate year [PGY]-4, 9 PGY-3, and 14 PGY-2) participated. End-of-work shift sleepiness, mean weekly sleep hours, personal study hours, and hours spent in lectures did not differ between the control and intervention months. Resident quality of life measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory declined for 1 subscore in the intervention month (p = 0.03). Resident education satisfaction declined during the intervention month for issues related to continuity of care, patient hand-offs, and knowledge of their patients. Faculty satisfaction declined during the intervention month, without a decline in quality of life. CONCLUSIONS The results from 3 residency programs suggest that the IOM WDH recommendations may negatively affect neurology resident education. This study was limited by the short duration of implementation, negative bias against the IOM recommendations, and inability to blind faculty. Additional study of the IOM WDH recommendations is warranted before widespread implementation.
M Kidszun, S Haindl, T Thersleff, J Hänisch, A Kauffmann, K Iida, J Freudenberger, L Schultz, B Holzapfel
IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, 01171 Dresden, Germany. M. Kidszun@ifw-dresden.de
Having succeeded in the fabrication of epitaxial superconducting LaFeAsO(1-x)F(x) thin films we performed an extensive study of electrical transport properties. In the face of multiband superconductivity we can demonstrate that an anisotropic Ginzburg-Landau scaling of the angular dependent critical current densities can be adopted, although being originally developed for single band superconductors. In contrast with single band superconductors the mass anisotropy of LaFeAsO(1-x)F(x) is temperature dependent. A very steep increase of the upper critical field and the irreversibility field can be observed at temperatures below 6 K, indicating that the band with the smaller gap is in the dirty limit. This temperature dependence can be theoretically described by two dominating bands responsible for superconductivity. A pinning force scaling provides insight into the prevalent pinning mechanism and can be specified in terms of the Kramer model.
Virology. 2011 Jun 5;414 (2):103-9 21489589
Alejandra Leo-Macias, Garrett Katz, Hui Wei, Alexandra Alimova, A Katz, William J Rice, Ruben Diaz-Avalos, Guo-Bin Hu, David L Stokes, Paul Gottlieb
Skirball Institute, Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, 540 First Ave., New York, NY 10016, USA.
Cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging are utilized to determine that the bacteriophage ϕ12, a member of the Cystoviridae family, contains surface complexes that are toroidal in shape, are composed of six globular domains with six-fold symmetry, and have a discrete density connecting them to the virus membrane-envelope surface. The lack of this kind of spike in a reassortant of ϕ12 demonstrates that the gene for the hexameric spike is located in ϕ12's medium length genome segment, likely to the P3 open reading frames which are the proteins involved in viral-host cell attachment. Based on this and on protein mass estimates derived from the obtained averaged structure, it is suggested that each of the globular domains is most likely composed of a total of four copies of P3a and/or P3c proteins. Our findings may have implications in the study of the evolution of the cystovirus species in regard to their host specificity.
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Katedra farmaceutické technologie Farmaceutické fakulty Univerzity Karlovy, Hradec Králové. email@example.com
Usability of modified penetrometry is examined and significant relationships with routinely used characteristics of flowability and structure of powdered substances are searched for in size fractions of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate. A systematic study of interrelationships between properties made it possible to achieve sufficiently reproducible results without a necessity of consolidation. By means of factor analysis, a connection between penetrometry, bulk flow rate, and Kawakita-constant was demonstrated. For multidimensional linear regression for estimation of penetrometry, the significance of examined properties decreases in the order Kawakita-constant > loose bulk density > total porosity > bulk flow rate > mass flow rate. The most important item of knowledge gained in the study is the dependence of penetrometry on a combination of loose bulk density and Kawakita-constant.
Acute and chronic toxicity of Potassium Chloride (KCl) and Potassium Acetate (KC(2)H(3)O(2)) to Daphnia similis and Ceriodaphnia dubia (Crustacea; Cladocera).
Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Effects of dietary potassium citrate supplementation on urine pH and urinary relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate and struvite in healthy dogs.
WALTHAM Centre for Pet Nutrition, Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire, UK.
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of dietary potassium citrate supplementation on the urinary pH, relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate and struvite (defined as the activity product/solubility product of the substance), and concentrations of magnesium, ammonium, phosphate, citrate, calcium, and oxalate in dogs. ANIMALS 12 healthy adult dogs. PROCEDURE Canned dog food was fed to dogs for 37 days. Dogs were randomly allocated to 3 groups and fed test diets for a period of 8 days. Study periods were separated by 6-day intervals. During each study period the dogs were fed either standard diet solus (control) or standard diet plus 1 of 2 types of potassium citrate supplements (150 mg potassium citrate/kg of body weight/d) twice daily. Urinary pH, volume and specific gravity, relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate and struvite, and concentrations of magnesium, ammonium, phosphate, calcium, oxalate, and citrate were assessed for each treatment. RESULTS Mean urine pH was not significantly affected by dietary potassium citrate supplementation, although urine pH did increase by 0.2 pH units with supplementation. Diets containing potassium citrate maintained a higher urine pH for a longer part of the day than control diet. Three Miniature Schnauzers had a significantly lower urinary relative calcium oxalate supersaturation when fed a diet supplemented with potassium citrate, compared with control diet. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dietary potassium citrate supplementation has limited effects on urinary variables in most healthy dogs, although supplementation results in maintenance of a higher urine pH later in the day. Consequently, if supplementation is introduced, dogs should be fed twice daily and potassium citrate should be given with both meals or with the evening meal only.
Center for Mineral Metabolism and Clinical Research, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-8885, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the value of potassium-magnesium citrate (KMgCit) with potassium chloride in overcoming thiazide-induced hypokalemia. METHODS: Sixty normal subjects first took hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ; 50 mg/day). After three weeks of treatment (or earlier if hypokalemia developed), they were randomized to take KMgCit (42 mEq K, 21 mEq Mg, and 63 mEq citrate/day) or potassium chloride (42 mEq/day) for three weeks while continuing on HCTZ. RESULTS: KMgCit significantly increased the serum potassium concentration from 3.42 +/- 0.30 mEq/L on HCTZ alone to about 3.8 mEq/L (P < 0.001). Potassium chloride produced a similar increase in serum potassium concentration from 3.45 +/- 0.44 mEq/L to about 3.8 mEq/L (P < 0. 001). KMgCit significantly increased the serum magnesium concentration by 0.11 to 0.12 mEq/L (P < 0.01), whereas potassium chloride produced a marginal decline or no significant change. KMgCit was less effective than potassium chloride in correcting HCTZ-induced hypochloridemia and hyperbicarbonatemia. KMgCit, but not potassium chloride, significantly increased urinary pH (by about 0.6 unit), citrate (by about 260 mg/day), and urinary magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: KMgCit is equally effective as potassium chloride in correcting thiazide-induced hypokalemia. In addition, KMgCit, but not potassium chloride, produces a small but significant increase in serum magnesium concentration by delivering a magnesium load, and it confers alkalinizing and citraturic actions.
J Nutr. 1999 Nov ;129 (11):2043-7 10539782
Dietary potassium bicarbonate and potassium citrate have a greater inhibitory effect than does potassium chloride on magnesium absorption in wethers.
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands.
We addressed the question whether the type of anion in potassium salts affects magnesium absorption and the transmural potential difference by using wethers (n = 8) fed a control diet and diets supplemented with equimolar amounts of KHCO(3), KCl or K-citrate according to a Latin-square design. The control diet contained 10.9 g K/kg dry matter and the high K diets contained 41.3 g K/kg dry matter. Compared with the control diet, KHCO(3) and K-citrate significantly reduced apparent Mg absorption by 9.5 and 6.5%, respectively. Supplemental KCl tended to reduce (P = 0.070) group mean magnesium absorption by 5.5%. Consumption of supplemental KHCO(3) and K-citrate produced a significant increase in the transmural potential difference (serosal side = positive) by 17.1 and 20.7 mV, respectively, whereas the addition of KCl to the diet did not. The individual values for the four diets tended to show a negative correlation (r =-0.336, n = 32, P = 0.060) between the transmural potential difference and apparent magnesium absorption. We conclude that different potassium salts have different effects on magnesium absorption in ruminants as caused by different effects on the transmural potential difference.
Action potential conduction block of nerves in vitro by potassium citrate, potassium tartrate and potassium oxalate.
Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, West Medical Building, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK.
OBJECTIVES: Potassium salts in desensitising formulations are believed to act by blocking nerve conduction. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of some organic potassium salts to block action potential conduction and to compare their effects with potassium chloride and potassium nitrate. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Potassium citrate, oxalate or tartrate were added to Krebs' solutions to raise the potassium concentration to 8-64 mM. The test solutions were applied to rat spinal nerves in a bath while monitoring the compound action potentials evoked by electrical stimulation. RESULTS: All potassium salts attenuated the compound action potential in a dose-dependent manner. There were no significant differences between the effects of potassium tartrate and potassium citrate solutions (p>0.1) which caused significantly greater compound action potential attenuation than the same concentrations of potassium oxalate (p<0.05). On the basis of the potassium ion concentration required to cause 50% attenuation of the compound nerve action potential, the relative potencies of the potassium salts were: citrate = tartrate> oxalate>chloride =nitrate. CONCLUSION: Potassium citrate and potassium tartrate were more effective than other potassium salts in blocking nerve conduction and may be more effective dentinal desensitising agents.
J Vet Intern Med. ;11 (4):212-7 9298475
Muscle potassium content and potassium gluconate supplementation in normokalemic cats with naturally occurring chronic renal failure.
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA.
Muscle potassium content and supplementation with potassium gluconate were evaluated in normokalemic cats with chronic renal failure (CRF). Affected cats received standard medical therapy for renal failure and either placebo (sodium gluconate) or potassium gluconate. At the beginning of the study and after 6 months of supplementation, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were estimated using 3H-inulin and 14C-tetraethylammonium bromide (TEA) clearances. Muscle potassium content was determined in biopsy specimens using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Muscle biopsy samples obtained from cats with CRF before treatment had significantly lower muscle potassium content than did those from normal control cats. Over the 6-month period of supplementation, muscle potassium content increased both in cats with CRF that received potassium gluconate and in those that received placebo (sodium gluconate). Serum potassium concentration and fractional excretion of potassium remained relatively unchanged in both groups of cats throughout the treatment period. There were no significant differences in the percentage change in GFR and ERPF between treatment groups over the 6-month time period. Median values for pH, HCO3-, and total CO2 at 6 months were higher than baseline in the potassium gluconate group but lower than baseline in the sodium gluconate group.
Department of Otolaryngology, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Germany.
Motile properties of outer hair cells (OHCs) may contribute to sharp tuning and amplification in the mammalian cochlea. Shape changes of isolated OHCs in response to various physical and chemical influences have been investigated intensively. However, determinations of shape may have been influenced by unanticipated effects of preparation and preservation of the OHCs investigated. Thus, in a first step, lengths of freshly isolated OHCs from the guinea pig cochlea were determined using a video-enhancing magnification system. The cuticular plate/cell axis angle (CP/CA angle) was then measured in native cells and under the influence of potassium chloride and potassium gluconate incubation. To show the influence of glutaraldehyde (GA) fixation on the isolated OHCs, fixative-dependent changes on cell length and CP/CA angle were recorded in native and preincubated OHCs. In these experiments, the cell length of vital isolated OHCs was between 41.5 micrometers, in the basal turn, and 103.7 micrometers, in the apical turn. The average CP/CA angle was 106 degrees +/- 4.2 degrees (n = 324 cells, turns 1-4) with no statistically significant differences for the four turns. Under the influence of potassium chloride, cell length was reduced by 8.1%. Potassium gluconate incubation led to a shortening of cell length, followed by a 5.3% increase after 5 min. The CP/CA angle under potassium chloride was decreased (97.0 degrees) and was then increased under the influence of potassium gluconate (110.7 degrees) as a result of cuticular plate tilting. Cell shrinkage after fixation depended on the fixative's osmolarity and on the GA concentration. Increased GA levels amplified cell shrinkage from 34% for hypo-osmolar solutions to 15% in iso-osmolar and 29% in hyperosmolar solutions. The CP/CA angle of native and incubated OHCs was not different from those fixed with GA. The present data provide a rational basis for isolated OHC shape parameters. Moreover, functionally induced changes can be better interpreted when OHCs are influenced by fixatives, as shown in the GA experiments.