The emotional impact of end-stage renal disease: importance of patients' perception of intrusiveness and control.
The emotional impact of the intrusiveness of illness and patients' reduced control over several aspects of life were examined in the context of end-stage renal disease. A sample of thirty-five hemodialysis, ten continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), and twenty-five posttransplant patients participated in a standardized interview in which a series of eight self-report measures of positive and negative mood, life happiness, self-esteem, depression, and somatic symptoms of distress were obtained. Attending staff also completed a depression rating scale for each participant. Data reduction via principal-components analysis yielded two factors, corresponding to negative and positive mood, and these were submitted to covariance analyses in which age, general nonrenal health, and defensiveness were controlled statistically. Patients' perceptions of increased intrusiveness, and their perception of limited control over eleven life dimensions, each correlated significantly and uniquely with increased negative and decreased positive mood, suggesting that each of these two factors contributes importantly and independently to patients' distress. An "objective" continuum of intrusiveness, constructed by ranking the various treatment modalities represented in the sample, also related significantly to positive (but not to negative) mood levels.
Horten Centre for Patient-oriented Research, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. firstname.lastname@example.org.
UNLABELLED ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Many patients with chronic illness are limited in their physical activities. This systematic review evaluates the content and format of patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires that measure physical activity in elderly and chronically ill populations. METHODS Questionnaires were identified by a systematic literature search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO & CINAHL), hand searches (reference sections and PROQOLID database) and expert input. A qualitative analysis was conducted to assess the content and format of the questionnaires and a Venn diagram was produced to illustrate this. Each stage of the review process was conducted by at least two independent reviewers. RESULTS 104 questionnaires fulfilled our criteria. From these, 182 physical activity domains and 1965 items were extracted. Initial qualitative analysis of the domains found 11 categories. Further synthesis of the domains found 4 broad categories:'physical activity related to general activities and mobility','physical activity related to activities of daily living','physical activity related to work, social or leisure time activities', and '(disease-specific) symptoms related to physical activity'. The Venn diagram showed that no questionnaires covered all 4 categories and that the '(disease-specific) symptoms related to physical activity' category was often not combined with the other categories. CONCLUSIONS A large number of questionnaires with a broad range of physical activity content were identified. Although the content could be broadly organised, there was no consensus on the content and format of physical activity PRO questionnaires in elderly and chronically ill populations. Nevertheless, this systematic review will help investigators to select a physical activity PRO questionnaire that best serves their research question and context.
Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
OUTLINE: We review the clinical features of hyperhidrosis and the range of treatments used for this condition. We describe in detail the technique of endoscopic sympathectomy. We summarize studies that have reported results of endoscopic sympathectomy. We present new data highlighting the difference in quality of life between patients with hyperhidrosis and controls.
E Jane Dalton, Valaire Naisbitt Rasmussen, Catherine C Classen, Mareile Grumann, Oxana Gronskaya Palesh, Julia Zarcone, Helena C Kraemer, Jeffrey J Kirshner, Lauren K Colman, Gary R Morrow, David Spiegel
Women's Mental Health Program, Women's College Hospital, Ontario, Canada.
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-report measure of body image and sexual adjustment in breast cancer patients: the Sexual Adjustment and Body Image Scale (SABIS). Three hundred and fifty three women diagnosed with primary breast cancer that had completed initial surgical treatment completed the SABIS and five measures of psychological, psychosocial, and sexual functioning. Psychometric properties of the SABIS were examined and it was found to be a reliable and valid means of assessing body image and sexuality in breast cancer patients following surgery.
Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USA. Amber.Paukert@VA.gov
OBJECTIVES This study collected data on demographic factors, heart failure physical limitations, perception of heart failure intrusiveness, coping mechanisms, locus of control, self-efficacy and social support for 104 older veterans with heart failure (HF) to determine the factors' relative importance in predicting depressive symptoms. METHOD Participants were veterans at least 60 years of age with HF who were screened for depression and anxiety with the Geriatric Depression Scale and Geriatric Anxiety Inventory, respectively, so that the final sample consisted of equal numbers with and without significant levels of anxiety and depression. Other measures included the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, Heart Failure Illness Intrusiveness Rating Scale, Brief-COPE, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Chronic Disease Self-Efficacy and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. RESULTS Correlational analyses indicated that depressive symptoms were significantly associated with physical limitations from HF, HF perceptions of intrusiveness, maladaptive coping, attributing locus of control to chance and HF self-efficacy. Including these variables in one regression equation predicting depressive symptoms indicated that perceptions of intrusiveness from HF and attributing locus of control to chance were the only variables to predict depressive symptoms independent of the influence of other significant bivariate predictors. CONCLUSION Even if physical limitations, maladaptive coping and self-efficacy are held constant, decreasing perceptions of HF intrusiveness and locus of control to chance reduce depressive symptoms. These two cognitive/perceptual factors may play a salient role in treatment of depression among older HF patients.
The differential effect of child age on the illness intrusiveness--parent distress relationship in juvenile rheumatic disease.
Department of Psychology, 116 North Murray, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.
OBJECTIVE Examine age-related patterns of association between parent-reported illness intrusiveness and parent distress in parents of youth with juvenile rheumatic diseases (JRDs). STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional multiple regression analysis tested child age as a moderator in the illness intrusiveness-distress relationship. PARTICIPANTS Fifty-two parents of children ages 9-17 diagnosed with JRD. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The Illness Intrusiveness Scale--Parent Version and the Brief Symptom Inventory. RESULTS Parent-reported illness intrusiveness demonstrated a significant main effect on distress for all parents in the sample. This was qualified by an Illness Intrusiveness x Child Age interaction. Illness intrusiveness was found to be significantly related to distress among parents of older youth, but was only marginally related to distress for parents of younger children. CONCLUSIONS Results are consistent with family life cycle development models of adjustment to childhood chronic illness. The clinical implications of the findings are also discussed.
Cultural syndromes and age moderate the emotional impact of illness intrusiveness in rheumatoid arthritis.
Ontario Cancer Institute, Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, and Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE The authors investigated cultural syndromes (multidimensional vectors comprising culturally based attitudes, values, and beliefs) and age as moderators of the emotional impact of illness intrusiveness--illness-induced lifestyle disruptions--in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and examined illness intrusiveness effects in total and separately for three life domains (relationships and personal development, intimacy, and instrumental). RESEARCH METHOD/DESIGN: People with RA (n = 105) completed the Illness Intrusiveness Ratings, Individualism-Collectivism, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression scales in a one-on-one interview. RESULTS Controlling for disease and background characteristics, the association between illness intrusiveness (total score and the Relationships and Personal Development subscale) and distress was inverse when young adults with RA endorsed high horizontal individualism. Illness intrusiveness into intimacy was associated with increased distress, and this intensified when respondents endorsed high vertical individualism, horizontal collectivism, vertical collectivism, or low horizontal individualism. The negative emotional impact of illness intrusiveness into intimacy diminished with increasing age. CONCLUSION Given an aging and increasingly pluralistic society, diversity can no longer be ignored in addressing the psychosocial impact of chronic, disabling disease.
Jonathan Irish, Nimani Sandhu, Colleen Simpson, Robert Wood, Ralph Gilbert, Patrick Gullane, Dale Brown, David Goldstein, Gerald Devins, Emma Barker
Department of Otolaryngology-Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND This cross-sectional study sought to determine patient quality of life and function after prosthetic rehabilitation for maxillary and palate defects following cancer resection. METHODS Sixty-nine patients were identified, 42 participated in the study (61%). The Obturator Functioning Scale (OFS) and 4 general quality of life measures (Mental Health Inventory [MHI], Impact of Events Scale [IES], Illness Intrusiveness Ratings Scale [IIRS], and Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]) were correlated with clinical parameters. RESULTS Leakage when swallowing foods was the most frequently reported problem with the obturator (29%). Positive correlation was noted between the OFS and both the IES subscales (p <.01) and CES-D (p <.001). Difficulty with speech and eating was associated with increased avoidance of social situations. The surgical approach had a significant effect on the OFS, IES, and MHI subscales (p <.01). CONCLUSION These results support the findings that good obturator function is associated with a better quality of life.
University of East London, UK. email@example.com
This study assessed the relationship between illness intrusiveness, symptoms, disability and depression in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Participants were 16 patients with ME and eight patients with ME plus co-morbid disorders. The patients with co-morbid disorders reported greater illness intrusiveness than the patients with ME alone, but there were no differences between the groups on the other variables. Significant correlations were found between illness intrusiveness on the one hand, and fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, disability and depression, on the other. We conclude that ME is a disabling illness, which has a major impact on various life domains.
The Expert Patients Programme online, a 1-year study of an Internet-based self-management programme for people with long-term conditions.
Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford Patient Education Research Center, 1000 Welch Rd, Palo Alto, CA 94306, USA.
OBJECTIVES Evaluate the effectiveness of an online self-management programme (EPP Online) for England residents with long-term conditions. METHODS A prospective longitudinal study. Data were collected online at baseline, 6 and 12 months. The intervention was an asynchronous 6-week chronic-disease self-management programme offered online. We measured seven health status measures (health distress, self-rated health, illness intrusiveness, disability, fatigue, pain and shortness of breath), four behaviours (aerobic exercise, stretching exercise, stress management and communications with physician), and five utilization measures (GP visits, pharmacy visits, PT/OT visits, emergency visits and hospitalizations). We also measured self-efficacy and satisfaction with the health care system. RESULTS A total of 568 completed baseline data: 546 (81%) completed 6 months and 443 (78%) completed 1 year. Significant improvements (p < 0.01) were found at 6 months for all variables except self-rated health, disability, stretching, hospitalizations and nights in hospital. At 12 months only decrease in disability, nights in hospital and hospitalizations were not significant with reduction in visits to emergency departments being marginally significant (p = 0.012). Both self-efficacy and satisfaction with the health care system improved significantly. DISCUSSION The peer-led online programme conditions appears to decrease symptoms, improve health behaviours, self-efficacy and satisfaction with the health care system and reducing health care utilization up to 1 year.
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
This study evaluated the extent to which schizophrenia and its treatment interferes with participation in valued life activities and its impact on subjective well-being. The Illness Intrusiveness Ratings Scale was completed by 78 individuals with schizophrenia on 3 measurement occasions. Clinicians working with participants, plus a relative/friend of each participant also provided independent ratings of the person. The Illness Intrusiveness Ratings Scale displayed internal consistency (coefficient alpha = 0.82), and temporal stability across 1 day (r = 0.89), 1 week (r = 0.51), and 1 month (r = 0.78). Reported intrusiveness was high (M = 50.5) and was among the highest compared with populations with other serious medical and psychiatric illnesses. Ratings correlated with staff and family/friends' ratings of intrusiveness (r = 0.33 and r = 0.40), measures of symptomatology (average r = 0.25), and subjective well-being (average r = 0.41). Path analysis indicated that lifestyle disruption mediates the impact of symptoms and treatment on well-being. Implications for these findings and future directions for research are discussed.
Other papers by authors:
Y M Binik, A G Baker, D Kalogeropoulos, G M Devins, R D Guttmann, D J Hollomby, P E Barré, T Hutchison, M Prud'Homme, L McMullen
Pain was surveyed via structured interview and the McGill Pain Questionnaire in 53 dialysis and 27 transplant patients. Increased patient control over the dialysis procedure was not associated with a reduction in pain though perceived control may have been. Compliance with the dialysis regimen did not predict pain and the validity of the category "dialysis headache" was questioned. Overall, transplant recipients did not report significantly less pain than dialysis patients. Self-reported depression was correlated positively with pain. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
Culture, Community, and Health Studies, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (Clarke Division), University of Toronto and University Health Network, Toronto, Ont., Canada.
BACKGROUND/AIMS Early identification and predialysis psychoeducation are gaining acceptance. Although research supports the immediate value of predialysis interventions, long-term benefits remain unknown. We examined long-term knowledge retention following a psychoeducational intervention. METHODS 47 progressive renal failure patients completed the Kidney Disease Questionnaire at baseline and 18, 30, 42, and 54 months after initiating renal replacement therapy (RRT; the 'longitudinal' sample). A larger cohort provided data at one or more of these points (n = 132, 117, 101, and 70 at 18, 30, 42, and 54 months, respectively; the 'cross-sectional' sample). RESULTS Initial knowledge gains among psychoeducation recipients were followed by a significant knowledge advantage for three groups throughout follow-up. Patients who received predialysis psychoeducation either before or after starting dialysis demonstrated superior Kidney Disease Questionnaire scores as compared with those identified before the initiation of RRT who received the usual standard of practice. Patients identified after the initiation of RRT and who received standard education, however, demonstrated the same level of knowledge retention as produced by psychoeducation. The results were identical across the longitudinal and cross-sectional samples. CONCLUSIONS Patient education produces important benefits in end-stage renal disease, but the incremental value of early intervention remains to be demonstrated.
Live and learn: patient education delays the need to initiate renal replacement therapy in end-stage renal disease.
Y M Binik, G M Devins, P E Barre, R D Guttmann, D J Hollomby, H Mandin, L C Paul, R B Hons, E D Burgess
Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
During a longitudinal study of the quality of life of end-stage renal disease, 204 patients with deteriorating renal function were identified before dialysis or transplantation was required to preserve their lives. These patients were randomly assigned to either an enhanced or a standard education condition. The enhanced education condition consisted of a specially prepared slide-lecture show concerning kidney diseases and their treatment that was delivered by a trained research assistant. The standard education condition consisted of whatever educational procedures were routinely available at the participating hospital. All but six patients have now started treatment by maintenance dialysis. Individuals in the enhanced education condition survived an average of 4.6 months longer than did those in the standard education group without requiring the initiation of renal replacement therapy. This effect could not be attributed to physical differences between the groups, to cohort effects, to delays in contacting the patients, or to when or where they were identified. Possible mechanisms for this effect are discussed.
A prospective study of the clinical and pathological sequelae of hepatitis B disease in 22 immunosuppressed renal transplant patients is reported. All patients had allografts that functioned for more than 1 year, and all were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive following transplantation. None of the 18 patients who had serial HBsAg tests converted to HBsAg negative. Serial liver biopsies were performed in 19 patients and one liver biopsy was available in the remaining three patients. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 93 months. Seven patients ultimately developed cirrhosis, 6 developed chronic active hepatitis, 5 developed chronic persistent hepatitis, and in 4 the presence of HB virus in hepatocytes was the sole morphologic alteration. The initial liver biopsy was not an accurate predictor of ultimate severity of liver disease because 5 of the 12 patients with virus only or chronic persistent hepatitis subsequently developed chronic active hepatitis or cirrhosis. Clinical liver dysfunction occurred in 8 patients, all of whom had chronic active hepatitis or cirrhosis. Three patients died with hepatic failure and 2 with hepatoma. The risk of death from liver disease in HBsAg-positive renal transplant patients was 5% per patient-year. For comparison, 10 HBsAg-positive patients whose renal failure had been treated by hemodialysis were also studied over a comparable period. Biochemical evidence of persistent liver dysfunction recurred in 1 patient only; 4 patients converted to the HBsAg-negative state; and no patient has died from complications of liver disease. We conclude that in the immunosuppressed renal transplant patient HB infection often results in the development of chronic active hepatitis, leading to cirrhosis and death from hepatoma and hepatic failure.
The Kidney Disease Questionnaire: a test for measuring patient knowledge about end-stage renal disease.
Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Two studies report on the development of the Kidney Disease Questionnaire (KDQ) as a test for measuring patient knowledge about end-stage renal disease and its treatment. The KDQ is available in a 26-item version or as two parallel 13-item tests. Psychometric evaluations indicate that all versions show high levels of reliability. Initial validity tests are also promising. The KDQ is able to discriminate individuals well informed about kidney disease and its treatment from those who are not so well informed. It is also sensitive to the effects of an experimental education program and to ESRD-related knowledge that is acquired as a result of starting dialysis. Data and issues related to the administration, readability, demographic correlates, and a French translation of the KDQ are also presented and discussed.
Structure of lifestyle disruptions in chronic disease: a confirmatory factor analysis of the Illness Intrusiveness Ratings Scale.
G M Devins, R Dion, L G Pelletier, C M Shapiro, S Abbey, L R Raiz, Y M Binik, P McGowan, N G Kutner, H Beanlands, S M Edworthy
Culture, Community, and Health Studies Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (Clarke Division), Toronto, ON, Canada. Gerald_Devins@camh.net
BACKGROUND The Illness Intrusiveness Ratings Scale (IIRS) measures the extent to which disease or its treatment or both interfere with activities in important life domains. Before comparing IIRS scores within or across groups it is crucial to determine whether a common underlying factor structure exists across patient populations. OBJECTIVE To investigate the factor structure underlying the IIRS and evaluate its stability across diagnoses. METHODS IIRS responses from 5,671 respondents were pooled from 15 separate studies concerning quality of life in eight patient groups: rheumatoid arthritis; osteoarthritis; systemic lupus erythematosus; multiple sclerosis; end-stage renal disease (maintenance dialysis); renal transplantation; heart, liver, and lung transplantation; and insomnia. Data were gathered by different methods (eg, interview, self-administered, mail survey) and in diverse contexts (eg, individual vs. group). RESULTS Exploratory maximum-likelihood factor analysis identified three underlying factors in a randomly selected subset of respondents (n = 400), corresponding to "Relationships and Personal Development,""Intimacy," and "Instrumental" life domains. Confirmatory factor analysis corroborated the stability of this structure in an independent subsample (n = 2100). Complementary goodness-of-fit indices confirmed the consistency of the three-factor solution, corroborating that IIRS scores are uniquely defined across patient populations. Coefficient alpha was high for total and subscale scores. CONCLUSIONS IIRS scores can be compared meaningfully within and across patient groups. Both total and subscale scores can be used depending on research objectives.
Loss of renal mass has been associated with the development of glomerular sclerosis in animals and human beings. The pathophysiology of this renal injury is unknown, but glomerular sclerosis in animals can be aggravated or accelerated following exposure to nephrotoxic antibodies, puromycin aminoglycoside or renal irradiation. We describe here the outcome of the first renal transplant performed in the British Commonwealth. Glomerular sclerosis occurred in identical twins who were kidney donor and recipient, renal failure occurring 14 and 16 years after transplantation, respectively. Examination of these twins and all living immediate family members showed that six of the seven family members (both twins, their mother, and three sisters) had increased concentrations of circulating immune complexes, decreased total hemolytic complement, and low or borderline concentrations of C4. Only twins with single kidneys had detectable renal disease. Other preexisting causes of renal disease in these twins that would account for the glomerular sclerosis could not be identified. We suggest that a familial immune defect contributed to the development of glomerular sclerosis in these twins who were predisposed to renal disease due to loss of renal mass.
Transplantation and home hemodialysis treatments have been available to treat patients with end stage renal disease for several years but it is not clear which approach is most cost-effective. This study compared the costs of hemodialysis and transplantation for comparable patients using the marginal cost methodology. Sixteen patients in a home program were matched with 16 patients in a transplantation program for sex, age, primary disease and other medical diseases. Questionnaires and a chart review allowed the accounting of all health services received in hospitals, offices or at home, and provided indicators of treatment effectiveness. The impact of the additional services generated by choosing one treatment over the other (difference between the two programs) was evaluated in terms of personnel, equipment and supplies. Survival and rehabilitation were similar in the two groups. However, for each year of follow-up, transplantation was considerably less expensive than home dialysis. These results suggest that transplantation is the most cost-effective way to treat end stage renal failure, at least for the subgroup of patients equally eligible for either transplantation or home dialysis.
Latest similar papers:
Hemodial Int. 2012 Jan ;16 (1):76-81 22099520
Department of Psychology, University of Panteion, Athens, Greece. email@example.com
Sexual functioning is composed of both physiological and psychological factors among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the role of depression and anxiety has not yet been studied extensively. This study aimed to investigate the relation of depressive and anxiety symptoms to sexual functioning among hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis patients. A sample of 144 patients was recruited from three general hospitals in the broader area of Athens, consisting of 84 patients undergoing in-center HD and 60 patients in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Measurements were conducted with the following instruments: the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI 1/STAI 2), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The results indicated that satisfaction about sexual life had negative association with all the subscales of GHQ-28 questionnaire (somatic symptoms, anxiety/insomnia, social dysfunction, severe depression). Sexual functioning was also related negatively to depression as well as state and trait anxieties. Findings provide evidence that the presence of depressive and anxiety symptoms relates significantly to the negative evaluation of sexual functioning in patients with CKD.
Computed tomographic peritoneography in the investigation of patent processus vaginalis in CAPD patients.
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is a useful and practical modality for the treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In the properly selected patient this method is well-tolerated with minimal complications. We report a case of intermittent massive genital edema secondary to patent processus vaginalis in a patient receiving CAPD. The diagnosis of patent processus vaginalis, which was strongly suggested by the intermittent nature of the symptoms, was confirmed by computerized tomography (CT) peritoneography.
Impact of dialysis therapy on insulin resistance in end-stage renal disease: comparison of haemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
Department of Nephrology, Shonan Kamakura General Hospital, Yamazaki Kamakura, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, NTT Kanto Teishin Hospital, Gotanda, Shinagawa and First Department of Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine.
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and, thus, has an important impact on the mortality of uraemic patients. Haemodialysis (HD) is known to improve insulin resistance observed in uraemia. However, it is not known whether continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) alleviates insulin resistance in adult uraemic patients. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of two different dialysis modalities, HD and CAPD, on insulin resistance in adult uraemic patients and to identify the possible predictive factors for changes in insulin resistance. METHODS: Insulin resistance was examined in 19 non-diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before and after dialysis therapy (HD, n=10; CAPD, n=9), as well as in 10 healthy controls using the hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic glucose clamp technique. The glucose disposal rate (GDR mg/kg/min) was used as an index of insulin sensitivity during the clamp technique. We also determined which of various biochemical parameters might be associated with change in insulin resistance by carrying out multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: GDR was significantly lower (6.44+/-1.76) in ESRD subjects than in normal subjects (9.90+/-2.01). HD and CAPD therapies significantly normalized GDR from 6.53+/-1.84 to 9.74+/-2.88 and from 6.35+/-1.65 to 8.18+/-1.76 respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that changes in BUN, haematocrit and plasma bicarbonate were significant predictive factors for the change in insulin resistance. CONCLUSION: CAPD therapy, in spite of its possible adverse effects in patients with atherosclerotic disease, has been shown to improve insulin resistance in adult uraemic patients, similarly to HD therapy.
Abteilung für Nephrologie, Kantonsspital Luzern.
We describe the frist reported case in Switzerland of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). HIVAN shows a typical combination of clinical findings: black race, proteinuria, large hyper-echogenic kidneys, normal blood pressure, positive HIV serology and no autoantibodies. The histologic findings are typical: focal segmental glomerulosclerosis of the collapsing variant, often with marked interstitial nephritis. The disease normally appears before AIDS symptoms develop and follows a very aggressive course to end-stage renal disease. Therapy consists of a combination of nucleoside reverse transcriptase and proteinase inhibitors, ACE inhibitors, and possibly steroids. In end-stage renal disease patients can be managed by haemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or kidney transplantation.
Department of Nursing, Kingston General Hospital, Ontario, Canada.
We assessed the impact of the introduction of a portable automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) system (Homechoice, Baxter Healthcare) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We evaluated HRQOL in 26 patients using the RAND 36-item Health Survey 1.0, which measures physical functioning, role limitations (physical and emotional), social functioning, emotional well-being, pain, energy, and general health perceptions. Questionnaires were administered prior to changing to the new system and 3 months later. Kt/V and albumin levels were measured at both time points. Eight patients had been on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), and 18 had been using other APD systems (PacXtra, Baxter and AMP80, Fresenius). Kt/V increased significantly (p = 0.026); albumin was unchanged (p = 0.09). There was an improvement in the pain score (p = 0.079), although this did not reach statistical significance in the overall sample. Subgroup analysis showed that most of the improvement was from the group that had used the AMP80. No other statistically significant differences were found overall in the domains of HRQOL. Questioning of a random sample of patients indicated that perceived advantages of the new system were ease of setup and portability within the home. Neither of these translated into improvement in role-functioning domains of HRQOL. The improvement in pain score may reflect the capacity of newer cyclers to switch from drain to fill after a set proportion of dialysate has drained, leaving the patient empty for less of the time. Portable APD systems did not bring about predicted improvements in HRQOL. The HRQOL instrument may be insensitive, but technologically convenient advances may have limited impact on HRQOL due to its multifactorial nature.
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Safat.
This paper describes the impact of Iraqi invasion and occupation on 196 end-stage renal failure (ESRD) patients maintained on dialysis treatment in Kuwait. Seventeen patients were abroad on holidays at the time of invasion, 77 fled the country for safety, and the rest (102) remained in Kuwait. Nearly half of those patients who remained in Kuwait died during the period of occupation. The mortality rate was as high as 95% in the intermittent cycler peritoneal dialysis (IPD) patients and 41% in haemodialysis patients compared to only 12.7% for those who left the country for treatment. Failure to reach dialysis centres, sepsis, myocardial infarction, and cerebral haemorrhage were the major causes of death. Shortage of skilled nurses was the major detrimental factor which necessitated major policy changes in the treatment programme. Those were (1) restriction of haemodialysis treatment hours and (2) discontinuation of IPD and transfer of patients to continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The incidence of new ESRD Kuwaiti patients entering dialysis programme during the occupation period and soon afterwards was only 37 per million Kuwaiti population compared to 60 per million in the previous years.
Multicenter study of lipoprotein(a) and apolipoprotein(a) phenotypes in patients with end-stage renal disease treated by hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
F Kronenberg, P König, U Neyer, M Auinger, A Pribasnig, U Lang, J Reitinger, G Pinter, G Utermann, H Dieplinger
Institute of Medical Biology and Human Genetics, University of Innsbruck, Austria.
Numerous studies have investigated lipoprotein(a)(Lp(a)) plasma concentrations in patients with ESRD, a patient group with an enormous risk for atherosclerosis. The reported differences in Lp(a) between controls and patients vary from a decrease of 49% to an increase of more than 1,000%. However, data are not consistent, mostly because of problems with statistical analysis, and only limited data are available for patients treated by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). To estimate the significance of Lp(a) in ESRD and to demonstrate the statistical pitfalls concerning Lp(a) in case-control studies, a large multicenter study including 702 patients treated by either hemodialysis (HD)(N = 534) or CAPD (N = 168) was conducted, and results were compared with results from 256 healthy controls. Both patient groups showed significantly elevated Lp(a) levels in comparison with controls: 23.4 +/- 25.0 mg/dL (P < 0.005; HD) and 34.6 +/- 38.4 mg/dL (P < 0.0001; CAPD) versus 18.4 +/- 22.8 mg/dL (controls). CAPD patients showed significantly higher Lp(a) values than did patients treated by HD (P < 0.001). The difference between the two treatment groups possibly reflects an overproduction of Lp(a) to compensate for protein losses in CAPD patients. Both treatment groups included significantly more patients with Lp(a) values greater than the 75th percentile (25.6 mg/dL) of the control group (33.9 and 41.7% for HD and CAPD, respectively; P < 0.005). The higher Lp(a) values in patients were not explained by differences in isoform frequencies and the increase in Lp(a) was apolipoprotein(a) type specific: only patients with high-molecular-weight apolipoprotein(a) isoforms showed a significant elevation in Lp(a) levels. The increased plasma concentrations of Lp(a) may contribute to the high risk for atherosclerosis in ESRD, especially in patients treated by CAPD. Finally, it is believed that small sample sizes are responsible for the diverging results in Lp(a) literature.
Toronto Western Hospital, Ontario, Canada.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate (1) the disease course,(2) the response to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO), and (3) the morbidity and mortality of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to multiple myeloma (MM) who were treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING Tertiary teaching hospital--The Toronto Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. PATIENTS Seven patients with ESRD due to MM who were treated with CAPD. RESULTS Mean age of the patients was 77.2 years (median 80 years, range 65-88 years). Two were in stage IB, 1 was in stage IIB, and the remaining 4 were in stage IIIB, according to Durie and Salmon's staging. Three patients received rHuEPO; 2 of these also were receiving chemotherapy for myeloma. The mean rHuEPO requirement was 277 U/kg/wk, which was more than other ESRD patients' requirements. Mean duration of CAPD was 20.6 months (6-58 months). The peritonitis rate was one episode in 14.4 months. The frequency of hospitalization was once in 5.6 months, and the mean number of days spent in hospital was 20 days per year. Quality of life did not get worse and, if anything, improved marginally while they were on CAPD. Three patients died after a mean survival of 32.7 months, and the remaining 4 patients are still alive. CONCLUSIONS Myeloma patients with ESRD do fairly well on CAPD without deterioration in their quality of life and with an acceptable peritonitis rate.
Decreased uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis.
Laboratory of Biochemical Pharmacology, Beilinson Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel.
Raised plasma uroporphyrin levels were found in all the 14 patients with end-stage renal disease studied, 7 of whom were on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and 7 on hemodialysis (HD). The elevation observed in the HD group was higher than that noted in the CAPD group; 18-fold in the former and 13-fold in the latter. The difference in uroporphyrin plasma levels between the two dialysis populations might be explained, at least partially, by the reduced activity of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD), the enzyme which converts uroporphyrinogen to coproporphyrinogen. A decrease of 48% was noted in the HD group, whereas no change was observed in the CAPD group. A significant negative correlation (r =-0.37, p < 0.01) was found between the concentration of uroporphyrin in plasma and the activity of UROD. In view of the data shown, it is suggested that erythrocyte UROD activity should be interpreted with caution in HD patients suspected of having porphyria cutanea tarda.
Trypsinogen and other pancreatic enzymes in patients with renal disease: a comparison of high-efficiency hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
Department of Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC, 20037 USA.
Although serum amylase and lipase levels have been studied extensively in patients with renal disease, there are fewer data regarding trypsinogen levels in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treated with different dialytic modalities. We therefore evaluated the blood concentrations of trypsinogen, amylase, and lipase in asymptomatic patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) and ESRD, to determine whether treatment modality or renal handling of these enzymes is important in determining steady-state levels in asymptomatic patients with chronic renal disease. Mean trypsinogen concentration levels were higher in hemodialysis (HD) patients and patients with CRI compared with normal subjects when values in the different groups were compared. There was no difference in the mean trypsinogen levels between patients treated with HD and those with CRI, between patients treated with chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and those treated with HD, or between CAPD patients and patients with CRI. The mean circulating trypsinogen concentration was elevated more frequently and to a higher level than amylase or lipase in patients with CRI and ESRD. HD treatment did not result in a lowering of mean circulating pancreatic enzyme levels. We propose that decreased peripheral clearance, pancreatic overproduction, increased release from the pancreas, or a combination of these mechanisms is responsible, at least in part, for the increased plasma concentration of trypsinogen in patients with CRI, rather than simply a decrease in renal clearance.