Since 1955, a standardized treatment regimen has been used to manage 245 cases of eclampsia at Parkland Memorial Hospital. Magnesium sulfate alone effectively controlled controlled convulsions in the great majority of cases. The only maternal death among the 245 cases reemphasizes the risk of respiratory arrest that is inherent in the administration of magnesium sulfate when given in large doses intravenously. Hydralazine to lower the diastolic blood pressure somewhat, when it was 110 mm Hg or higher, prevented intracranial hemorrhage. Avoidance of diuretics and hyperosmotic agents and limitation of fluid intake were not associated with severe renal failure. Pulmonary edema was rare. Vaginal delivery was achieved in the majority of cases. Oxytocin often proved effective for initiating and maintaining labor even remote from term. The results obtained with this regimen justify its continued clinical application.
: Department of Medicine, Topiwala National Medical College and B.Y.L. Nair Ch. Hospital, Mumbai Central, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
BACKGROUND A pregnant woman is usually young and in good health until she suffers from some acute injury. Her prognosis will hopefully be better if she receives timely intensive care. MATERIALS AND METHODS The aims of this study were to study the indications of medical intensive care unit (MICU) transfers for critically ill pregnant and postpartum females, biochemical and hematological profile, organ failure, ICU interventions, outcome of mother/fetus, APACHE II score and its correlation with mortality. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING It is a prospective observational study, carried out in the MICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of 18 months. One hundred and twenty-two pregnant and postpartum females (up to 42 days after delivery) were studied. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Maternal age >30 years was associated with high mortality (68.2%). Majority of the females were admitted in the third trimester (50 patients) and postpartum period (41 patients), and mortality was highest in the postpartum period (39%). Increasing parity and gravida was associated with significantly high mortality (59.5%). Acute viral hepatitis E (45 patients) was most common indication for MICU transfer, followed by malaria and pregnancy-induced hypertension. The mortality rate was 30.3%. The most common cause of death was acute viral hepatitis E (24 patients), with hepatic failure (53 patients) being the most common organ failure. Majority of the females (88 patients) were ANC registered. Low Glasgow coma score and high APACHE II score on admission were associated with significantly high mortality (85.2%). Prompt treatment with oseltamivir in H1N1 infection was associated with good maternal and fetal outcomes.
Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. email@example.com
A substantial amount of research has shown that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) may play a key role in the pathophysiology of several neurological diseases, including epilepsy. Animal models of epilepsy and clinical studies demonstrate that NMDAR activity and expression can be altered in association with epilepsy and particularly in some specific seizure types. NMDAR antagonists have been shown to have antiepileptic effects in both clinical and preclinical studies. There is some evidence that conventional antiepileptic drugs may also affect NMDAR function. In this review, we describe the evidence for the involvement of NMDARs in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and provide an overview of NMDAR antagonists that have been investigated in clinical trials and animal models of epilepsy.
Neurol Clin. 2011 Nov ;29 (4):973-94 22032669
Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, 301 Building, 4940 Eastern Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Treating coma in the mother also means treating the fetus. Pregnant women are subject to causes of coma that may also arise from the effects of pregnancy on organ systems: vascular, cardiac, pulmonary, renal, endocrine, and others. With coma, no investigations are categorically excluded when the mother's health and life are at risk. Pregnancy and hormonal effects on blood volume, blood vessels, and changes in blood pressure explain some special causes of stroke in pregnancy. Others include intracranial hemorrhage and venous occlusive disease, as well as worsening of underlying vessel disease during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period.
Department of Neurology, University of Vermont and Department of Neurology, University of Chicago.
A randomised comparative study between low-dose intravenous magnesium sulphate and standard intramuscular regimen for treatment of eclampsia.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, R. G. Kar Medical College, Kolkata, India. email@example.com
In a randomised control study, we evaluated the efficacy of intravenous low-dose magnesium sulphate for the management of eclampsia. A total of 144 women with eclampsia were divided into a study group and a control group of 72 women each. The study group received 0.75 g/h of magnesium sulphate intravenously after a loading intravenous dose of 4 g and the control group was given the standard intramuscular regimen as advocated by Pritchard. The primary outcome measure was recurrence rate of the seizures. The secondary outcome measures were development of magnesium toxicity if any, and maternal and perinatal outcomes. The difference in the incidence of fit recurrence was statistically insignificant when both groups were compared (7.46% vs 8.57%, p = 0.939). The total dose of magnesium sulphate was significantly lower in the intravenous group (p < 0.0001), in which no patient developed magnesium toxicity. Low-dose intravenous magnesium sulphate was found to be as effective as the standard intramuscular regimen, while maintaining a high safety margin.
Lessons for low-income regions following the reduction in hypertension-related maternal mortality in high-income countries.
Drexel University College of Medicine, PA19102, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVES To evaluate pre-eclampsia/eclampsia-associated maternal mortality in high-income countries to understand better the potential improvements in pre-eclampsia/eclampsia-related mortality in low-income countries. METHODS We searched Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database (1900-2010) using relevant search terms. Studies of the incidence of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia and case fatality rates in various geographic regions were included. The incidence of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia and the pre-eclampsia/eclampsia-associated case fatality rates are presented by location and year. RESULTS Most declines in maternal mortality associated with pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in high-income countries occurred between 1940 and 1970 and were associated with a 90% reduction in the incidence of eclampsia and a 90% reduction in the case fatality rate in women with eclampsia. The most important interventions were widespread use of prenatal care with blood pressure and urine protein measurement, and increased access to hospital care for timely induction of labor or cesarean delivery for women with severe pre-eclampsia or seizures. CONCLUSIONS A substantial reduction in pre-eclampsia/eclampsia-related mortality could be made in low-income countries by widespread hypertension and proteinuria screening and early delivery of women with severe disease. Magnesium sulfate may reduce mortality, but should not be the cornerstone of maternal mortality reduction programs.
Elaine Gomes da Silva, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite Carvalhaes, Humberto Sadanobu Hirakawa, Evelise Guimarães da Silva, José Carlos Peraçoli
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Botucatu Medical School, UNESP - São Paulo State University, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. email@example.com
To analyze the direct (resistance and reactance) and indirect (intra and extracellular total body water) BIA parameters in preeclamptic women, 51 healthy pregnant women and 65 preeclamptic women were submmited to bioelectric impedance on the third trimester of gestation. The significance value adopted was 5%. Preeclamptic women showed lower values for R (448 Ω vs. 542 Ω), Rc (40 Ω vs. 53 Ω) and ICW (49.45% vs. 51%) when compared to control group. They also showed higher values for TBW (49% vs. 47%), TBWcor (41.6% vs. 34%) and ECW (50% vs. 47%). Bioelectric impedance allowed differentiating preeclamptic women from health pregnant women, indicating that preeclampsia changes body compartments during pregnancy. This method can help understand the mechanisms involved in preeclampsia and to be a prediction away of preeclampsia.
Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries.
Godfrey Woelk, Karen Daniels, Julie Cliff, Simon Lewin, Esperança Sevene, Benedita Fernandes, Alda Mariano, Sheillah Matinhure, Andrew D Oxman, John N Lavis, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg
Department of Community Medicine, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box A178 Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe.
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs). We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4)) in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case); and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case). METHODS: We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. FINDINGS: Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO(4 )and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO(4 )than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO(4), and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three countries. CONCLUSION: Translating research knowledge into policy is a complex and context sensitive process. Researchers aiming to enhance knowledge translation need to be aware of factors influencing the demand for different types of research; interact and work closely with key policy stakeholders, networks and local champions; and acknowledge the roles of important interest groups.
School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Although iron and zinc deficiencies are known to occur together and also appear to be high in Ghana, a few supplementation studies addressed this concurrently in pregnancy. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 600 pregnant women in Ghana were randomly assigned to receive either a combined supplement of 40 mg of zinc as zinc gluconate and 40 mg of iron as ferrous sulphate or 40 mg of elemental iron as ferrous sulphate. Overall, there was no detectable difference in the mean birthweight between the study groups, although the effect of iron-zinc supplementation on the mean birthweight was masked by a strong interaction between the type of supplement and the iron status of participants [F (1,179)= 5.614, p = 0.019]. Prenatal iron-zinc supplementation was effective in increasing the mean birthweight among anaemic and iron-deficient women but not among women with elevated iron stores in early pregnancy.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital/ Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are important causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. There is need to provide the most effective management to pre-eclamptic and eclamptic patients. There is now evidence that magnesium sulphate is the most effective anticonvulsant. METHOD In this article , a literature review was made on the contribution of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia to maternal mortality and how it can be curtailed by the use of magnesium sulphate. RESULTS The drug is administered by the Pritchard or Zuspan regimen, although modifications in the two protocols have been reported. CONCLUSION A Nigerian national protocol has been developed on its use. There is need for further training of health workers on how to use this important drug.
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Overt thrombocytopenia (defined as a platelet count of less than 100,000/microL) was not identified at or soon after delivery in any of 262 infants of mothers with hypertension induced or exacerbated by pregnancy. The platelet counts were 100,000 to 149,000/microL in 11 (4.2%) of the offspring and 150,000/microL or higher in the rest, even though the platelet counts of the 258 mothers were less than 150,000/microL in 77 (30%), less than 100,000/microL in 51 (20%), and less than 50,000/microL in 17 (7%). Some infants of hypertensive mothers did develop overt thrombocytopenia later; however, the frequency and intensity appeared to be no greater than it was in infants with similar complications (prematurity, growth retardation, infection, and meconium aspiration) whose mothers were normotensive. We conclude that the fetus whose mother has preeclampsia-eclampsia is very unlikely to be thrombocytopenic during labor and delivery, even when the mother is thrombocytopenic. Therefore, neither cesarean delivery to avoid labor nor scalp blood platelet counts during labor need be performed.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235-9032.
At Parkland Memorial Hospital the frequency of abruptio placentae so severe as to kill the fetus has decreased from 1 in 420 deliveries during 1956 through 1969 to 1 in 830 during 1974 through 1989. Major factors in this reduction were elimination of very high parity and a marked increase in the percentage of Latin American women, in whom the risk was 1 in 1473 deliveries compared with 1 in 595 for black women and 1 in 876 for white women. Abdominal trauma was encountered rarely, as was fetoplacental-to-maternal hemorrhage sufficient to impair fetal perfusion seriously. Abnormal development of Müllerian ducts and uterine myomas were encountered rarely. Neither red blood cell macrocytosis characteristic of folate deficiency nor iron deficiency could be implicated in the genesis of severe abruptio placentae. Abruptio placentae recurred in 12% of subsequent pregnancies and proved fatal to the fetus in 7%, unchanged from our earlier experience.
Maternal morbidity and perinatal outcome in 108 pregnancies complicated by sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin SS disease), sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease (hemoglobin SC disease), or sickle cell-beta-thalassemia disease were analyzed. Women given prophylactic red cell transfusions (1973-1982) during pregnancy were matched with historic controls whose care was almost identical except that blood was not given unless indicated (1955 to 1972). In women with hemoglobin SS disease who received prophylactic red cell transfusions, there was a sevenfold reduction in perinatal mortality and negligible maternal morbidity. In pregnancies complicated by hemoglobin SC disease during which transfusions were given, there were no perinatal losses, whereas there were in 18% of women not given transfusions. Maternal morbidity in women given transfusions was negligible; however, half of those not transfused experienced morbidity and, importantly, pulmonary complications were common. Transfusion-related complications included hepatitis and alloimmunization. From these experiences the authors conclude that prophylactic red cell transfusions reduce maternal morbidity and perinatal mortality appreciably, although perinatal morbidity is not eliminated. Transfusion therapy is justifiably started early in pregnancy for women with hemoglobin SS disease; however, transfusions may be withheld until the end of the second trimester for women with hemoglobin SC or sickle cell-beta-thalassemia disease.
A management plan is described for women with pregnancy-induced hypertension. The plan was derived from observations of well-defined methods in more than 20,000 pregnancies at Parkland Memorial Hospital. Even though the treatment regimens described are empiric, there are considerable data presented to justify their clinical application.
The effects of maternal sickle cell hemoglobinopathies and sickle cell trait on reproductive performance.
The incidence of cesarean delivery in the United States has at least tripled in the past 20 years, and this has generated a great deal of concern within the profession, by the government, and by the consumer. Recent data from the National Maternity Hospital in Dublin, Ireland, from which a stable 5% cesarean section rate was reported, have led those investigators to conclude that more frequent delivery by cesarean section in the United States was due in part to less aggressive management of labor in nulliparous patients. In this report, we compare obstetric practices and outcomes during 1983 for Parkland Memorial Hospital with those of the National Maternity Hospital. The overall cesarean delivery rate was 18% in Dallas and 6% in Dublin, and racial population differences along with an increased number of nulliparous patients likely account for a higher incidence of primary cesarean sections for dystocia in Dallas. Importantly, when we compared the results in Dublin with our own, more liberal use of cesarean delivery for presumed fetal jeopardy in Dallas was associated with a sevenfold decreased incidence of intrapartum fetal death and a twofold decrease in infants with seizures. From these data, we advise caution before one attempts to emulate, on faith alone, someone else's low and seemingly safe cesarean delivery rate.
Convulsions in hypertensive, proteinuric primiparas more than 24 hours after delivery. Eclampsia or some other cause?
A diagnosis of eclampsia has been considered inappropriate when the onset of a convulsion is greater than 24 hours after delivery. The observations presented here provide strong support for waiving the 24-hour rule, at least when convulsions from no other apparent cause and accompanied by hypertension and proteinuria occur in a primipara as late as 10 days postpartum. Late postpartum eclampsia seems an appropriate term for this very uncommon condition.
During a 12-year period, when more than 106,000 women were delivered, 28 women with peripartum heart failure of obscure etiology that initially was diagnosed as peripartum cardiomyopathy were studied. None had obvious underlying cardiac disease or iatrogenic fluid overload, and in all an assiduous search for underlying cardiovascular disease was launched. In 21 of these 28 women, heart failure was attributed to chronic underlying disease (chronic hypertension in 14, forme fruste mitral stenosis in four, and morbid obesity in one) or viral myocarditis. Importantly, these women also had multiple compounding cardiovascular factors--preeclampsia, cesarean section, anemia, and infection--which, when superimposed on those of pregnancy, acted in concert to cause heart failure. In seven women, the cause for cardiomegaly and global hypokinesis was not found, and peripartum cardiomyopathy was diagnosed. Compared with women with explicable causes of peripartum heart failure, these women did poorly: six had persistent cardiomegaly and heart failure, and four of these died within four months to eight years. From these observations, the authors conclude that idiopathic peripartum cardiomyopathy is uncommon, and that in most women with peripartum heart failure of obscure etiology, underlying chronic disease will be identified. Heart failure in these women ensues when the cardiovascular demands of normal pregnancy are amplified further by common pregnancy complications superimposed upon these underlying conditions that cause compensated ventricular hypertrophy.
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Histocompatibility Laboratory, BloodSource, 10536 Peter A McCuen Blvd, Mather, CA 95655, USA.
Transfusion-related acute lung injury is a clinical syndrome that occurs within 6 hours of transfusion. It is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. It presents with shortness of breath, acute pulmonary edema, fever, hypotension, or hypertension followed by hypotension. Treatment consists of respiratory support and fluid administration to support blood pressure. A majority of cases are associated with antibodies to white blood cells in the blood donor. Blood centers in the United States are currently taking measures to reduce the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury from blood components.
Rev Assoc Med Bras. ;55 (2):175-80 19488654
Brena Carvalho Pinto de Melo, Melania Maria Ramos Amorim, Leila Katz, Isabela Coutinho, Giselly Veríssimo
Instituto Materno Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira, Recife, PE.
BACKGROUND: To describe maternal characteristics and blood pressure behavior in the puerperium of women admitted, during pregnancy, with diagnosis of severe preeclampsia. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted including pregnant women with gestational age of 28 weeks or more, with diagnosis of preeclampsia, not in labor, at the Instituto Materno Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira (IMIP) from November 2006 to September 2007. Patients with chronic hypertension, autoimmune diseases, gestational diabetes, multiple pregnancy and signs of clinical instability were excluded. Biological, demographic and obstetrical characteristics were analyzed, as well as the behavior of systolic and diastolic blood pressure post partum. RESULTS: 154 patients with severe preeclampsia were included. The mean maternal age was 25.1 + 6.5 years. Regarding education only 45.5% had completed 11 years of schooling. Only 20.1% of deliveries were vaginal and preterm newborns occurred in 59.8% of cases. Two cases of eclampsia, eighteen cases of HELLP syndrome and 43 cases of oliguria were registered. Length of post partum hospital stay varied from one to 30 days, and 45% of patients were in hospital until the seventh day after delivery. Hypertensive emergencies were registered in 53.9% of the patients during puerperium and use of antihypertensive drugs was maintained in 76.5% of the women. CONCLUSIONS: Preeclamptic women tend to have controlled blood pressures after the third day of puerperium and are likely to be discharged from hospital still using anti-hypertensive drugs. Key-words: Severe preeclampsia, post partum period complications.
Paropakar Maternity and Women's Hospital, Thapathali. firstname.lastname@example.org
A retrospective study of 68 eclamptic women who received Magnesium sulphate at Koshi Zonal Hospital were analyzed during a one year period (2006-2007 AD). Maternal conditions at admission, associated complications in mothers and babies, delivery outcomes and cause of death were also studied in each case. There were 5240 deliveries during the period of analysis. Of which 4976 were live births, pregnancy induced hypertension was 0.89%(47), 0.74%(39) presented with pre-eclampsia, 0.30 (16) cases with severe pre-eclampsia and 0.43 (23) cases with mild pre-eclampsia. During this period 1.3%(68) of eclampsia presented to the hospital. Of which 67.7% presented with ante-partum eclampsia, 22.1% with intrapartum eclampsia and 10.3% with post partum eclampsia. Majority of women (63.2%) were between 20-25 years of age, while teenage pregnancy contributed 30.88% of eclamptic cases. The diastolic blood pressure was >110 mm of Hg in 45.6% of cases, 90-110 mmHg in 50% of cases and in 4.4% the it was <90 mmHg. 94.1% presented to the hospital in an unconscious state, 79.4% of eclamptic women received the full dose of magnesium sulphate (initial loading plus maintenance dose), while rest failed to receive the full dose. Nine women with severe pre-eclampsia received magnesium sulphate as a prophylactic measure. 17.7% women had home delivery, one patient left against medical advice and one was referred to a tertiary care center. Caesarian Section (Lower Segment) was performed in 35.2% of cases, 30.8% had normal vaginal deliveries and 5.8% had pre term delivery. About 69.6% babies were born alive, 8.7% were still births, 11.6% were neonatal deaths and 4.4% of babies had to be admitted to the neonatal intensive care. Eclamptic women stayed less than one week in the hospital in majority of cases (64.7%), between 1-2 weeks in 32.4% and more than two weeks in 2.9%. Maternal complications included decreased urinary output, pulmonary edema in three cases; chest and wound infection two cases each; post partum psychosis, vulval haematoma, severe headache one case each. There were seven maternal deaths during this period and eclampsia contributed to one of the deaths. Eclampsia is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in our setup. Magnesium sulphate is an excellent drug of choice in management of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia. Wider coverage of pre-natal care, timely referral and optimal management of cases of eclampsia with magnesium sulphate in hospitals are key issues to prevent mortality/morbidity associated with it.
Women Birth. 2008 Dec ;21 (4):171-3 18986860
Mirza Kouchak Khan Hospital-Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
BACKGROUND Eclampsia remains as a major obstetric problems that plagues a large percentage of women resulting in a large percentage of maternal and perinatal morbidities. In general, most women will have a classical presentation of preeclampsia. However, studies have suggested that some women will develop eclampsia without the classical findings. CASE REPORT We report a case of postpartum eclampsia with the first manifestation of convulsions resistant to diazepam and magnesium sulfate. In this patient high blood pressure was first detected after the seizures. Electroencephalography and CT scan of brain were normal. Patient's blood pressure returned to normal 1 month after parturition. CONCLUSION Postpartum eclampsia can manifest without a preceding preeclampsia phase. Therefore, eclampsia is not always preventable. Pregnancies complicated by eclampsia require a well-formulated management plan.
Joost J Zwart, Annemiek Richters, Ferko Ory, Johanna I P de Vries, Kitty W M Bloemenkamp, Jos van Roosmalen
Department of Obstetrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, the Netherlands. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE The incidence of maternal mortality due to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in the Netherlands is greater than in other Western countries. We aimed to confirm and explain this difference by assessing incidence, risk factors, and substandard care of eclampsia in the Netherlands. METHODS In a nationwide population-based cohort study, all cases of eclampsia were prospectively collected during a 2-year period (2004-2006). All pregnant women in the Netherlands in the same period acted as reference cohort (n=371,021). Substandard care was assessed in all cases. A selection of cases was extensively audited by an expert panel. Main outcome measures were incidence, case fatality rate, possible risk factors, and substandard care. RESULTS All 98 Dutch maternity units participated (100%). There were 222 cases of eclampsia, for an incidence of 6.2 per 10,000 deliveries. Three maternal deaths occurred; the case fatality rate was 1 in 74. Risk factors in univariable analysis included multiple pregnancy, primiparity, young age, ethnicity, and overweight. Prophylactic magnesium sulfate was given in 10.4% of women, and antihypertensive medication was given in 39.6% of women with a blood pressure on admission at or above 170/110 mm Hg. Additionally, substandard care was judged to be present by an expert panel in 15 of 18 audited cases (83%). CONCLUSION The incidence of eclampsia in the Netherlands is markedly increased as compared with other Western European countries. Substandard care was identified in many cases, indicating the need for critical evaluation of the management of hypertensive disease in the Netherlands.
Obstetric Critical Care Unit, Ibn Rochd University Hospital, Casablanca, Morocco.
OBJECTIVES To conduct a prospective review of all cases of eclampsia over a 4-year period and to establish prognostic factors that may assist in reducing morbidity and mortality in these patients. METHODS The population studied was split into two groups: Group1 (survivors) and Group 2 (deceased). We compared their demographic, clinical, biological and radiological data. Patients were regularly followed for 2 months after discharge. Quantitative and qualitative statistic tests were used. RESULTS 342 cases of eclampsia were studied. Based on 37,467 pregnancies in the 4-year period, in our catchment area, we estimated an overall incidence of 0.91%. 62.5% of patients were nulliparous and 82% of all patients had no ongoing antenatal care. 71% were delivered by Cesarean section. 23 (6.7%) maternal deaths were recorded. Our findings suggested that poor prognosis factors were: diastolic blood pressure 115 mm Hg, Glasgow Coma Scale 8, thrombocytopenia, liver cytolysis, acute renal failure, cerebral edema and hemorrhage, and pulmonary edema. CONCLUSIONS This disease remains a veritable health problem in our country. We need to improve antenatal follow-up by increasing mothers' awareness and by facilitating access to medical care.
Department of Anesthesiology, Hannover Medical School, D-30625 Hannover, Germany.
Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is caused by a variety of central nervous system lesions and may appear as a subclinical complication. The fulminant form of NPE is always life-threatening. Many pathophysiologic mechanisms have been implicated in the development of NPE, but the exact interaction remains unknown. We report a case of a fulminant NPE with fatal consequences associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Treatment focuses on ventilatory support and measures to reduce intracranial pressure.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical School, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.
AIM: To describe the case profile of maternal death resulting from hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and to propose measures for its reduction. METHODS: The Committee on Maternal Mortality of São Paulo City has identified 609 cases of obstetric maternal death between 1995 and 1999 with an underreporting rate of 52.2% and a maternal mortality rate of 56.7/100,000 live births. Arterial hypertension was the main cause of maternal death, corresponding to 142 (23.3%) cases. RESULTS: Ninety-five (66.9%) of the deaths occurred during the puerperal period and 34 (23.9%) occurred during pregnancy. The time of death was not reported in 13 (9.2%) cases. Seizures were observed in 41 cases and magnesium sulfate was used in four of them. The causes of death were ruled to be cerebrovascular accident (44.4%), acute pulmonary edema (24.6%), and coagulopathies (14.1%). Cesarean section was performed in 85 (59.9%) cases and vaginal delivery in 15 (16.0%). CONCLUSION: Complications of arterial hypertension are responsible for the high rates of pregnancy-related maternal death in São Paulo City. Quality prenatal care and appropriate monitoring of the hypertensive pregnant patient during and after delivery are important measures for better control of this condition and are essential to reduce disorders in pregnancy.
Successful management of a pregnant woman with HELLP syndrome, pulmonary edema, postpartum hemorrhage and acute renal failure, using early hemodialysis, intravenous immunoglobulin and noninvasive monitoring: a case report.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) with medical complications is a major cause of maternal mortality in pregnancy. A vicious cycle may occur without expeditious delivery and proper management. CASE A woman with severe HELLP syndrome, hemolytic renal failure, pulmonary edema and postpartum hemorrhage was successfully managed using early hemodialysis, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring. CONCLUSION Pulmonary edema is easily managed by early hemodialysis. IVIG may be a viable treatment for thrombocytopenia and hemolysis but can induce reversible interstitial nephritis and membranous glomerulonephritis.
Late postpartum eclampsia: report of two cases managed by uterine curettage and review of the literature.
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.
The purpose of this study was describe two patients with rapid recovery of refractory late postpartum eclampsia (LPPE) following uterine curettage, and to evaluate the literature about supportive evidence for such a management in LPPE. A detailed literature search was performed focusing on studies reporting the clinical presentation, laboratory workup, imaging, and management of LPPE. Mean reported onset of LPPE was on postpartum day 7.0 +/- 2.9. Only 35.3% had a history of preeclampsia: these had earlier onset of seizures compared with the subjects without history of preeclampsia (4.3 +/- 1.4 versus 7.6 +/- 2.9 days; p < 0.005). Onset of seizure was correlated with systolic blood pressure (Pearson's r = 0.34; p < 0.05). Major associated symptoms were headaches (71.4%), visual changes (46.0%), and nausea/vomiting (22.2%); 67.5% of patients were proteinuric. The remaining laboratory tests were usually normal. Among the patients with a normal head computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging identified additional abnormalities in 53.8%(seven of 13). A total of 69.7% of patients developed multiple seizure episodes, some of these occurred while the patient was receiving magnesium sulfate treatment; 82.5% of patients underwent magnesium therapy and approximately half of those patients required multiple antiseizure drugs. The number of seizures was only correlated with the diastolic blood pressure (Pearson's r = 0.52; p < 0.01). Even remote from delivery, headaches, visual change, and nausea/vomiting are important symptoms of LPPE. Hypertension and/or proteinuria are important diagnostic findings. LPPE is often characterized by refractory seizures and controlling the diastolic blood pressure is important. Patients presented in our case report showed no seizures after uterine curettage. This potential useful management for LPPE requires additional investigation.