Division of Kidney, Urologic and Hematologic Diseases, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.
This report is a summary of the discussion on the United States Renal Data System and its data contents, as presented at the Symposium on World Renal Registries on December 10, 1993. The United States Rental Data System is a national database that collects and analyzes information on the incidence, prevalence, morbidity, and mortality, as well as the modalities of therapy of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States. The database is funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health. Data on the patients are provided by the Health Care Financing Administration Medicare Program. The coordinating center for the database, operated through a contract mechanism, was formerly at the Urban Institute in Washington, DC, but is currently located at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. The data system contains information on over 462,000 patients with more than 4 million dialysis records, 2.3 million inpatient records, 94,000 transplant reports, and more than 290,000 follow-up reports. The incidence rate of ESRD is approximately 180 per million population. However, the rate is higher in African-Americans (430) and Native Americans (281) than in whites (153) and Asian/Pacific Islanders (133). The gross mortality rate of the entire ESRD population is approximately 168 deaths per 1,000 patient-years at risk. The death rate is higher in diabetic than in nondiabetic ESRD patients. It is also higher in ESRD patients older than 65 years (357) than in patients in the 45- to 64-year-old age group (158) or those in the 20- to 44-year-old age group (62).
Monika A Niewczas, Tomohito Gohda, Jan Skupien, Adam M Smiles, William H Walker, Florencia Rosetti, Xavier Cullere, John H Eckfeldt, Alessandro Doria, Tanya N Mayadas, James H Warram, Andrzej S Krolewski
Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.
Levels of proinflammatory cytokines associate with risk for developing type 2 diabetes but whether chronic inflammation contributes to the development of diabetic complications, such as ESRD, is unknown. In the 1990s, we recruited 410 patients with type 2 diabetes for studies of diabetic nephropathy and recorded their characteristics at enrollment. During 12 years of follow-up, 59 patients developed ESRD (17 per 1000 patient-years) and 84 patients died without ESRD (24 per 1000 patient-years). Plasma markers of systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and the TNF pathway were measured in the study entry samples. Of the examined markers, only TNF receptors 1 and 2 (TNFR1 and TNFR2) associated with risk for ESRD. These two markers were highly correlated, but ESRD associated more strongly with TNFR1. The cumulative incidence of ESRD for patients in the highest TNFR1 quartile was 54% after 12 years but only 3% for the other quartiles (P<0.001). In Cox proportional hazard analyses, TNFR1 predicted risk for ESRD even after adjustment for clinical covariates such as urinary albumin excretion. Plasma concentration of TNFR1 outperformed all tested clinical variables with regard to predicting ESRD. Concentrations of TNFRs moderately associated with death unrelated to ESRD. In conclusion, elevated concentrations of circulating TNFRs in patients with type 2 diabetes at baseline are very strong predictors of the subsequent progression to ESRD in subjects with and without proteinuria.
Heng-Jung Hsu, Chiung-Hui Yen, Kuang-Hung Hsu, Chin-Chan Lee, Shu-Ju Chang, I-Wen Wu, Chiao-Yin Sun, Chia-Chi Chou, Chen-Chao Yu, Ming-Fang Hsieh, Chun-Yu Chen, Chiao-Ying Hsu, Cheng-Hao Weng, Chi-Jen Tsai, Mai-Szu Wu
1Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan.
BACKGROUND: Higher cardiovascular mortality has been noted in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD patients are also known to have impaired energy expenditure but the role of energy expenditure in cardiovascular disease is not yet known. Furthermore, the association between cold dialysis (CD) and clinical outcomes in hemodialysis patients is unclear.METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective cohort study consisting of two groups: a CD group with dialyzate temperature <35.5°C and a standard dialysis (SD) group with dialyzate temperature between 35.5 and 37°C. The end points of the study were overall mortality, cardiac mortality and non-cardiac mortality. The study analyzed the associations between dialyzate temperature and long-term survival in CD and SD groups. Propensity score analysis was used to control for intergroup baseline differences.RESULTS: Baseline characteristics of both groups were similar. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that CD was significantly associated with a lower risk for overall mortality (P = 0.006) and cardiac mortality (P = 0.023) but not for non-cardiac mortality or infectious mortality. After multivariate Cox regression analysis, adjusting for propensity scores and other possible confounding factors, CD remained a significant beneficial factor for overall mortality (P = 0.030) and cardiac mortality (P = 0.034).CONCLUSION: Our studies show that CD is significantly and independently associated with a lower risk for overall mortality and cardiac mortality.
Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. email@example.com
Individual studies indicate that kidney transplantation is associated with lower mortality and improved quality of life compared with chronic dialysis treatment. We did a systematic review to summarize the benefits of transplantation, aiming to identify characteristics associated with especially large or small relative benefit. Results were not pooled because of expected diversity inherent to observational studies. Risk of bias was assessed using the Downs and Black checklist and items related to time-to-event analysis techniques. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to February 2010. Cohort studies comparing adult chronic dialysis patients with kidney transplantation recipients for clinical outcomes were selected. We identified 110 eligible studies with a total of 1 922 300 participants. Most studies found significantly lower mortality associated with transplantation, and the relative magnitude of the benefit seemed to increase over time (p < 0.001). Most studies also found that the risk of cardiovascular events was significantly reduced among transplant recipients. Quality of life was significantly and substantially better among transplant recipients. Despite increases in the age and comorbidity of contemporary transplant recipients, the relative benefits of transplantation seem to be increasing over time. These findings validate current attempts to increase the number of people worldwide that benefit from kidney transplantation.
Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Department of Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. firstname.lastname@example.org
Renal transplantation is the first choice of treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. It offers a longer life span, a better quality of life, and lower health care costs as compared to long-term dialysis. In the past years, a constantly rising demand of kidneys on the one hand and a shortage of disposable organs on the other hand pose a growing challenge on transplant medicine. Donor and recipient gender may influence many aspects of kidney transplantation, but the nature of these interactions is still unclear. This article summarizes a part of our present knowledge in the field of gender-related kidney donation and kidney transplantation. Causes for gender disparity and its consequences will be discussed.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 Feb 18;: 20167688
Mônica Viegas Andrade, Jaume Puig Junoy, Eli Iola Gurgel Andrade, Francisco de Assis Acurcio, Ricardo Sesso, Odilon Vanni de Queiroz, Daniele Araújo Campos Szuster, Isabel Cristina Gomes, Alessandra Maciel Almeida, Mariangela Leal Cherchiglia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The use of dialysis modalities for ESRD varies around the world. There is no consensus in literature regarding the most appropriate choice of dialysis method. The aim of this study was to analyze the initial modality for ESRD in Brazil and evaluate the factors determining patients' allocation to either hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS,& MEASUREMENTS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using national administrative registries of all patients financed by the public system who began renal replacement therapy in 2000 in Brazil. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with the probability of receiving HD or PD at the start of treatment. Independent variables tested were age, sex, presence of diabetes, geographic region of residence, and health care supply indicators. RESULTS: Of 11,563 patients analyzed, 88% started on HD and 12% started on PD. Patients were more likely to be assigned to HD if they were male (odds ratio: 1.44; 95% confidence interval: 1.23 to 1.68) and nondiabetic (odds ratio: 0.71; 95% confidence interval: 0.60 to 0.84). With regard to age, the youngest and the elderly showed lower probability of being in HD. In addition, the state of residence at the start of treatment was very important to explain initial modality allocation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that patient allocation in Brazil is not random. The probability of allocation to HD or PD is highly associated with individual attributes and supply variables.
Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital in Al Kadhimiyia, PO Box 70025, Baghdad, Iraq. almosawiAJ@yahoo.com
BACKGROUND Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cannot sustain life in the absence of renal replacement therapy (RRT). However, a 4-year dialysis freedom with improved well-being has been reported in ESRD using a new therapeutic approach combining conservative measures and acacia gum (AG) supplementation. The aim of this paper is to report the achievement of 6-year dialysis freedom. PATIENTS AND METHODS During December 2001, six patients with ESRD and significant uremia that required at least one dialysis session to maintain life were enrolled in a clinical trial investigating the use of a new therapeutic approach combining conservative measures and AG supplementation aiming at improving well-being and providing patients with ESRD dialysis freedom. Three patients were treated with this approach. One patient complied with protocol for only 10 days and died after 6 months peritoneal dialysis. Two patients completed 1 year on this therapeutic regimen. Both patients reported improved well-being. Neither became acidotic nor uremic, and neither required dialysis during the 1 year of the study period. Both patients maintained serum creatinine and urea levels not previously achieved without dialysis. The other three patients were managed with intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD). All died within less than 6 months. Of the two surviving patients on AG supplementation, one patient stopped AG supplementation after 1 year and died within 1 month despite IPD. The other patient continued to be treated with this novel approach and continued to experience improved well-being and dialysis freedom. The aim of this paper is to report the achievement of 6-year dialysis freedom in this patient. RESULTS During 6 years of therapy the girl continued in experiencing improved well-being and good participation in outdoor activities. Mild uremic symptoms occurred only during periods of noncompliance. Periods of decreased compliance with pharmacologic therapies were associated with anemia and renal osteodystrophy and some degree genue vulgum has resulted. CONCLUSION It was possible to address ESRD in this particular patient as a disease process that can be treated by totally different medical treatment approaches without the use of either chronic dialysis or transplant.
Fibroblast growth factor 23: a possible cause of left ventricular hypertrophy in hemodialysis patients.
School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, and Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan.
BACKGROUND Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a common cardiovascular disorder and an independent risk factor for cardiovascular death in dialysis patients. Hyperphosphatemia is associated with LVH. Previous studies have shown that fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which has an important role in phosphate metabolism, is elevated in chronic hemodialysis patients. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study is to determine the association of FGF23 and LVH and the prognostic value of FGF23 in chronic hemodialysis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred twenty-four end-stage renal disease patients were evaluated for LVH by echocardiography. Serum FGF23 levels were measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. RESULTS Patients with LVH were more likely to have poor urea clearance (Kt/V), higher systolic blood pressure, and comorbidity of diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. LVH was also associated with higher levels of FGF23. Multivariate analysis indicated that FGF23 level, systolic blood pressure, and comorbidity of diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease remained correlated with LVH. This suggested that serum FGF23 level is independently associated with LVH in our hemodialysis patients. Cox analysis indicated no significant difference in risk of death for patients with elevated levels of FGF23. CONCLUSION LVH has a high prevalence in hemodialysis patients, and FGF23 is independently associated with LVH but is not a predictor for short-term prognosis (2-year follow-up).
Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
To evaluate the current status of renal transplantation in the Arab world, a questionnaire was mailed to prominent renal transplant physicians and surgeons in the Arab countries to get information related to number, donor type, immunosuppressive therapy used and survival of graft and patients who received renal transplantation. Furthermore, data about rehabilitation and legislation in the Arab countries were also included. The cost of renal transplantation was estimated from historical data. There were replies from 14 out of 22 (70%) countries with a total population of approximately 210 million (84%). Renal transplantation started in most of these countries in the late seventies and early eighties. In all but one, the renal transplant programs started with live related donations, and continued over the past 1 5-20 years with this type of donation. There have been 5,680 such operations, performed in a growing number of transplant centers. Legislation organizing donation from cadaveric donors has been established in only seven of the fourteen countries (50%) and, to date, there are only five countries with specialized centers to organize organ donation. The overall average graft survival is 87%, 80%, 60%, while patient survival is 96%, 85%, 70%, during one, five and ten years respectively. Full rehabilitation averaged 50%, partial rehabilitation averaged 40% and complete dependence averaged 10% after renal transplantation in the Arab countries. We conclude that there is still a need for more efforts to increase the number of renal transplantation, passing legislations that organize organ donation, and increase utilization of cadavers in renal transplantation in the Arab countries.
Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Maggiore Hospital, IRCCS, Milan, Italy. email@example.com
Prevention of nosocomial transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been a signal achievement in the management of chronic kidney disease. The rate of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity in patients on maintenance hemodialysis in the developed world is currently low (0-10%) but outbreaks of acute HBV infection continue to occur in this setting. The prevalence of HBV infection within dialysis units in developing countries appears higher (2-20%) based on relatively few reports. Although data are limited, HBV infection in dialysis population diminishes survival; HBV viral load in HBsAg-positive dialysis patients is reportedly low and stable over time. Updated recommendations for the management of HBsAg chronic carriers on maintenance dialysis have been issued. No rigorously controlled treatment trials for treatment of hepatitis B with either interferon or lamivudine therapy in dialysis patients are currently available.
Huseyin Bozbas, Ilyas Atar, Aylin Yildirir, Aliseydi Ozgul, Murathan Uyar, Nurhan Ozdemir, Haldun Muderrisoglu, Bulent Ozin
Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Sudden death is common in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Cardiac arrhythmia is observed frequently in patients with ESRD and is thought to be responsible for this high rate of sudden death. This study investigated the prevalence and the predictors of arrhythmia in patients on maintenance dialysis. METHODS Ninety-four patients on hemodialysis program were enrolled in the study. Routine laboratory results were noted. Arrhythmia, periods of silent ischemia, and heart-rate variability analyses were obtained from 24-hour Holter monitor recordings. Corrected QT (QTc) dispersion was calculated from 12-lead surface EKG. Echocardiographic and tissue Doppler examinations were performed on interdialytic days as well. Ventricular arrhythmia was classified according to Lown classification; classes 3 and above were accepted as complex ventricular arrhythmia (CVA). RESULTS The mean age was 52.5+/-13.2 years; 44 (46.8%) were women. Ventricular premature contractions were detected in 80 (85.1%) patients, of whom 35 (37.2%) were classified as complex ventricular arrhythmia (CVA). Coronary artery disease, hypertension, and QTc dispersion appeared as independent factors predictive of CVA development. Atrial premature contractions (APC) were detected in 53 patients (56.4%) and supraventricular arrhythmia in 15 (16%) patients; all were identified as atrial fibrillation. Duration of dialysis therapy was found as an independent predictor of APC. CONCLUSION Arrhythmia is frequently observed in ESRD patients receiving hemodialysis and may be responsible for the high rate of sudden mortality. Hypertension, CAD, and QTc dispersion are independent predictors of CVA, and duration of dialysis therapy is an independent factor affecting APC development in these patients.
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Risk factors for hospitalization for bacterial or viral infection in renal transplant recipients--an analysis of USRDS data.
Division of Pediatric Nephrology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA. email@example.com
We previously showed that children are more likely to develop viral infections post-kidney transplant while adults are more likely to develop bacterial infections. In this study we determined the overall risk factors for hospitalization with either a bacterial (HBI) or a viral infection (HVI). We analyzed data from 28 924 United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Medicare primary renal transplant recipients from January 1996 to July 2000, for adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) for HBI or HVI in the first 3 years posttransplant. For HVI, significantly higher AHR was seen with (a) recipient age <18 years (AHR 1.57, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.42),(b) donor CMV positive (AHR 1.72, 95% CI = 1.34, 2.19). For HBI, significantly higher AHR was seen with (i) delayed graft function (AHR 1.28, 95% CI = 1.076, 1.518),(ii) primary renal diagnosis chronic pyelonephritis (AHR 1.71, 95% CI = 1.18, 2.49);(iii) associated pretransplant diabetes (AHR 1.80, 95% CI = 1.53, 2.12);(iv) female gender AHR 1.63, 95% CI = 1.41, 1.88). Lower AHR for HVI was seen in CMV-positive recipients and for HBI with more recent year of transplant. Other covariates did not impact significantly in either HVI or HBI.
R S Suri, A X Garg, G M Chertow, N W Levin, M V Rocco, T Greene, G J Beck, J J Gassman, P W Eggers, R A Star, D B Ornt, A S Kliger
Division of Nephrology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
Observational studies suggest improvements with frequent hemodialysis (HD), but its true efficacy and safety remain uncertain. The Frequent Hemodialysis Network Trials Group is conducting two multicenter randomized trials of 250 subjects each, comparing conventional three times weekly HD with (1) in-center daily HD and (2) home nocturnal HD. Daily HD will be delivered for 1.5-2.75 h, 6 days/week, with target eK(t)/V(n)> or = 0.9/session, whereas nocturnal HD will be delivered for > or = 6 h, 6 nights/week, with target stdK(t)/V of > or = 4.0/week. Subjects will be followed for 1 year. The composite of mortality with the 12-month change in (i) left ventricular mass index (LVMI) by magnetic resonance imaging, and (ii) SF-36 RAND Physical Health Composite (PHC) are specified as co-primary outcomes. The seven main secondary outcomes are between group comparisons of: change in LVMI, change in PHC, change in Beck Depression Inventory score, change in Trail Making Test B score, change in pre-HD serum albumin, change in pre-HD serum phosphorus, and rates of non-access hospitalization or death. Changes in blood pressure and erythropoiesis will also be assessed. Safety outcomes will focus on vascular access complications and burden of treatment. Data will be obtained on the cost of delivering frequent HD compared to conventional HD. Efforts will be made to reduce bias, including blinding assessment of subjective outcomes. Because no large-scale randomized trials of frequent HD have been previously conducted, the first year has been designated a Vanguard Phase, during which feasibility of randomization, ability to deliver the interventions, and adherence will be evaluated.
Impact of HIV seropositivity on graft and patient survival after cadaveric renal transplantation in the United States in the pre highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era: an historical cohort analysis of the United States Renal Data System.
Nephrology Service, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC 20307-5001, USA.
BACKGROUND National statistics are presented for patient survival and graft survival in patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+) at the time of renal transplantation in the era prior to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS Historical cohort analysis of 63, 210 cadaveric solitary renal transplant recipients with valid HIV serology entries in the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) from 1 January 1987 to 30 June 1997. The medical evidence form was also used for additional variables but, because of fewer available values, was analyzed in a separate model. Outcomes were patient characteristics and survival associated with HIV+ status. RESULTS Thirty-two patients (0.05%) in the study period were HIV+ at transplant. HIV+ patients were comparable to the national renal transplant population in terms of gender and ethnic distribution but were younger and had younger donors and better HLA matching than the USRDS population. Patient and graft three-year survival were significantly reduced in HIV+ recipients (53% graft, 83% patient survival) relative to the USRDS population (73% and 88%, respectively). In multivariate analysis, HIV+ status was independently associated with patient mortality and decreased graft survival in recipients of cadaveric kidney transplants. CONCLUSIONS This analysis was retrospective and may underestimate the number of HIV+ patients transplanted in the United States. Although the clinical details of patient selection for transplant were unknown, these results show HIV+ patients can have successful outcomes after cadaveric renal transplantation, although outcomes are significantly different from HIV- recipients.
Sickle cell nephropathy at end-stage renal disease in the United States: patient characteristics and survival.
Nephrology Service, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC 20307-5001, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND The patient characteristics, including age at presentation to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality associated with sickle cell nephropathy (SCN) have not been characterized for a national sample of patients. METHODS 375,152 patients in the United States Renal Data System were initiated on ESRD therapy between January 1, 1992 and June 30, 1997 and analyzed in an historical cohort study of SCN. RESULTS Of the study population, 397 (0.11%) had SCN, of whom 93% were African-American. The mean age at presentation to ESRD was 40.68+/-14.00 years. SCN patients also had an independently increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 1.52, 95% CI: 1.27-1.82) even after adjustment for placement on the renal transplant waiting list, diabetes, hematocrit, creatinine, and body mass index. However, when receipt of renal transplantation was also included in the model, SCN was no longer significant (p = 0.51, HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.82-1.48). SCN patients were much less likely to be placed on the renal transplant waiting list or receive renal transplants in comparison to age and race matched controls, and results of survival analysis were similar in this model. CONCLUSIONS SCN patients were much less likely to be listed for or receive renal transplantation than other comparable patients with ESRD. SCN patients were at independently increased of mortality compared with other patients with ESRD, including those with diabetes, but this increased risk did not persist when models adjusted for their low rates of renal transplantation.
Hepatitis C virus seropositivity at the time of renal transplantation in the United States: associated factors and patient survival.
Organ Transplantation Service, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
National statistics for patient characteristics and survival of renal transplant recipients positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV+) at the time of renal transplant are presented. A historical cohort analysis of 33479 renal transplant recipients in the United States Renal Data System from 1 July, 1994 to 30 June, 1997 has been carried out. The medical evidence form was also used for additional variables, but because of fewer available values, this was analyzed in a separate model. Outcomes were patient characteristics and survival associated with HCV+. Of 28692 recipients with valid HCV serologies, 1624 were HCV+ at transplant (5.7% prevalence). In logistic regression analysis, HCV+ was associated with African-American race, male gender, cadaveric donor type, increased duration of pre-transplant dialysis, previous transplant, donor HCV+, recipient (but not donor) age, serum albumin, alcohol use, and increased all-cause hospitalizations. Diabetes and IgA nephropathy were less associated with HCV+. Total all-cause, unadjusted mortality was 13.1% in HCV+ vs. 8.5% in HCV- patients (p <0.01 by log rank test). In Cox regression, mortality was higher for HCV+(adjusted hazard ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.49, p = 0.04). HCV+ recipients were more likely to be African-American, male, older, and to have received repeat transplants and donor HCV+ transplants. HCV+ recipients also had substantially longer waiting times for transplant. In contrast to recent studies, diabetes did not have an increased association with HCV+, perhaps due to limitations of the database. HCV+ recipients had increased mortality and hospitalization rates compared with other transplant recipients.
Polycystic kidney disease at end-stage renal disease in the United States: patient characteristics and survival.
Nephrology Service, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC, 20307-5001, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND The patient characteristics and mortality associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease have not been characterized for a national sample of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. METHODS 375,152 patients in the United States Renal Data System were initiated on ESRD therapy (including patients who eventually received renal transplants) between January 1, 1992 and June 30, 1997 and analyzed in an historical cohort study of polycystic kidney disease. RESULTS Of the study population, 5,799 (1.5%) had polycystic kidney disease. In logistic regression, polycystic kidney disease was associated with Caucasian race (odds ratio 3.31, 95% CI, 3.09-3.54), women (1.10, 1.04-1.16), receipt of renal transplant (4.15, 3.87-4.45), peritoneal dialysis (vs. hemodialysis, 1.37, 1.27-1.49), younger age, and more recent year of first treatment for ESRD. Use of pre-dialysis EPO but not the level of serum hemoglobin at initiation of ESRD was significantly higher in patients with polycystic kidney disease. Patients with polycystic kidney disease had lower mortality compared to patients with other causes of ESRD, but patients with polycystic kidney disease had a higher adjusted risk of mortality associated with hemodialysis (vs. peritoneal dialysis) compared to patients with other causes of ESRD (hazard ratio 1.40, 1.13-1.75). CONCLUSIONS Hematocrit at presentation to ESRD was not significantly different in patients with polycystic kidney disease compared with patients with other causes of ESRD. Peritoneal dialysis is a more frequent modality than hemodialysis in patients with polycystic kidney disease, and patients with polycystic kidney disease had an adjusted survival benefit associated with peritoneal dialysis, compared to patients with other causes of renal disease.
Nephrology Service, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC 20307-5001, USA. email@example.com
Fungal infections in renal transplant recipients have not been studied in a national population. Therefore, 33,420 renal transplant recipients in the United States Renal Data System from 1 July 1994 to 30 June 1997 were analyzed in a retrospective registry study of hospitalized fungal infections (FI). FI were most commonly associated with secondary diagnoses of esophagitis (68, 23.9%), pneumonia (57, 19.8%), meningitis (23, 7.6%), and urinary tract infection (29, 10.3%). Opportunistic organisms accounted for 95.4% of infections, led by candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, and zygomycosis. Most fungal infections (66%) had occurred by six months post-transplant, but only 22% by two months. In logistic regression analysis, end-stage renal disease due to diabetes, duration of pre-transplant dialysis, maintenance tacrolimus and allograft rejection were associated with FI. In Cox regression analysis, recipients with FI had a relative risk of mortality of 2.88 (95% CI=2.22-3.74) compared to all other recipients. Among FI, zygomycosis and aspergillosis were independently associated with both increased patient mortality and length of hospital stay. Most fungal infections in renal transplant recipients were opportunistic, occurred later than previously reported, and were associated with greatly decreased patient survival. Recipients with diabetes, prolonged pre-transplant dialysis, rejection, and tacrolimus immunosuppression should be considered high risk for FI.
Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated nephropathy at end-stage renal disease in the United States: patient characteristics and survival in the pre highly active antiretroviral therapy era.
Nephrology Service, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC 20307-5001, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND The patient characteristics and course of HlV/AIDS-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) are presented for a national sample of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). METHODS 375,152 patients in the United States Renal Data System were initiated on ESRD therapy between 1 January 1992 and 30 June 1997 and analyzed in an historical cohort study of HIVAN. RESULTS Of the study population, 3653 (0.97%) had HIVAN. Among patients with HIVAN, 87.8% were African American. HIVAN had the strongest association with African American race compared to other causes of renal failure except sickle cell anemia in logistic regression analysis (odds ratio 12.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.57-14.07). In a separate logistic regression analysis, HIVAN was associated with male gender, decreased age (39.32 +/- 8.51 vs. 60.97 +/- 16.43 years, p<0.01 by Student's t-test), weight, body mass index, hemoglobin, albumin, decreased rate of pre-dialysis erythropoietin use, increased creatinine, decreased hypertension and increased rate of no medical insurance. The geographic distribution of HIVAN was similar to the distribution of HIV cases nationally. Two-year all cause unadjusted survival was 36% for HIVAN vs. 64% for all other patients with ESRD. HIVAN was associated with decreased patient survival in Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio for mortality 5.74, 95% CI, 5.40-6.10). CONCLUSIONS HIVAN had the strongest association with African American race of all causes of renal failure among patients on maintenance dialysis. HIVAN was associated with decreased patient survival after initiation of dialysis, which may be associated with poorer medical condition at initiation of dialysis.
The impact of renal transplantation on the incidence of congestive heart failure in patients with end-stage renal disease due to diabetes.
BACKGROUND Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that the clinical incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF) would be lessened after successful renal transplantation, as many of the metabolic and intravascular volume abnormalities associated with dialysis-dependent ESRD would resolve. METHODS Using data from the USRDS, we studied 11,369 patients with ESRD due to diabetes enrolled on the renal and renal-pancreas transplant waiting list from 1 July 1994-30 June 1997. Cox non-proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate adjusted, time-dependent hazard ratios (HR) for time to the most recent hospitalization for CHF (including acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or other CHF, ICD9 Code 428.x) for a given patient in the study period, controlling for both demographics and comorbidities in the medical evidence form (HCFA 2728). RESULTS In comparison to maintenance dialysis, renal transplantation was independently associated with a lower risk for CHF (HR 0.64, 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.77) in a model including age, gender, race, and year of first dialysis, but not in a model including comorbidities from the medical evidence form, although the sample was much smaller. CONCLUSIONS Patients with ESRD due to diabetes on the renal transplant waiting list were much less likely to be hospitalized for congestive heart failure after renal transplantation, despite post transplant complications due to immunosuppression.
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Xuyang Cheng, Saleem Nayyar, Mei Wang, Xuemei Li, Yi Sun, Wen Huang, Ling Zhang, Hua Wu, Qiang Jia, Wenhu Liu, Xuefeng Sun, Jijun Li, Lide Lun, Chunhua Zhou, Taigen Cui, Aihua Zhang, Kai Wang, Shixiang Wang, Weiming Sun, Li Zuo
1Institute of Nephrology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.
BackgroundThe raw annual mortality rate reported in Chinese patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) was around 10% between 2005 to 2010, and it was around 20% in the US as reported by the United States Renal Data System (USRDS). Our hypothesis was that the large survival difference was caused by differences in race and practice pattern between nations in addition to differences in patient characteristics.MethodsAnnual mortality in Beijing prevalent MHD patients per year in 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010 was reported and relative risks of death were compared with the corresponding mortality of USRDS prevalent MHD patients (in whites, African-Americans and Asian-Americans) after age, gender and primary cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were adjusted. A total of 11 675 MHD patients from 104 dialysis facilities under control of Beijing Blood Purification Quality Control and Improvement Center (BJBPQCIC) from 31 December 2006 to 31 December 2010 were included. A total of 1 937 819 MHD patients (only white, African-American and Asian-American were eligible for inclusion) were subtracted from the USRDS No-60-Day prevalent dataset from the year 2004 to 2009, using the RenDER system. Raw annual mortality for each race was reported as a number per 1000 MHD patients at risk for each year. Age, gender and primary cause of ESRD, adjusted annual mortality and relative risk race of death were reported comparing the Beijing patients and each race of the USRDS.ResultsThe raw annual mortality for the Beijing cohort increased gradually from 47.8 per 1000 patient-years in 2007 to 76.8 in 2010. The raw annual mortality for the white cohort in 2007 was 250.7 per 1000 patient-years, and gradually decreased to 236.3 in 2009. The raw annual mortality for African-Americans (167.8 and 156.7 per 1000 patient-years in 2007 and 2009, respectively) was much lower than that for whites. The annual mortality for Asian-Americans was slightly lower than that for African-Americans. After adjustment, Beijing MHD still had a survival benefit compared with each of the examined USRDS race. The annual mortality rates were 99.4, 80.6 and 94.3 per 1000 patient-years when adjusted to whites, African-Americans and Asian-Americans, respectively, in cohort 2009.ConclusionsThe annual mortality for the Beijing MHD patients was lower than that for their USRDS counterparts, and this difference existed after baseline demographics were adjusted. This survival difference between the Beijing and the USRDS MHD cohorts could be attributed to differences in race or practice pattern. More studies are needed to validate our hypothesis.
Fengbo Xie, Dong Zhang, Jinzhao Wu, Yunfeng Zhang, Qing Yang, Xuefeng Sun, Jing Cheng, Xiangmei Chen
Medical Systems Biology Research Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084, China. email@example.com
BACKGROUND In April 2010, with an endorsement from the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, the Chinese Society of Nephrology launched the first nationwide, web-based prospective renal data registration platform, the Chinese Renal Data System (CNRDS), to collect structured demographic, clinical, and laboratory data for dialysis cases, as well as to establish a kidney disease database for researchers and policy makers. METHODS The CNRDS program uses information technology to facilitate healthcare professionals to create a blood purification registry and to deliver an evidence-based care and education protocol tailored to chronic kidney disease, as well as online forum for communication between nephrologists. The online portal https://www.cnrds.net is implemented as a Java web application using an Apache Tomcat web server and a MySQL database. All data are stored in a central databank to establish a Chinese renal database for research and publication purposes. RESULTS Currently, over 270,000 clinical cases, including general patient information, diagnostics, therapies, medications, and laboratory tests, have been registered in CNRDS by 3,669 healthcare institutions qualified for hemodialysis therapy. At the 2011 annual blood purification forum of the Chinese Society of Nephrology, the CNRDS 2010 annual report was reviewed and accepted by the society members and government representatives. CONCLUSIONS CNRDS is the first national, web-based application for collecting and managing electronic medical records of patients with dialysis in China. It provides both an easily accessible platform for nephrologists to store and organize their patient data and acts as a communication platform among participating doctors. Moreover, it is the largest database for treatment and patient care of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in China, which will be beneficial for scientific research and epidemiological investigations aimed at improving the quality of life of such patients. Furthermore, it is a model nationwide disease registry, which could potentially be used for other diseases.
Division of Nephrology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 780 Welch Road, Suite 106, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
A half million Americans have ESRD, which puts them at high risk for cardiovascular disease and poor outcomes. Little is known about the epidemiology of atrial fibrillation among patients with ESRD. We analyzed data from annual cohorts (1992 to 2006) of prevalent hemodialysis patients from the United States Renal Data System. In each cohort, we searched 1 year of medical claims for relevant diagnosis codes to determine the prevalence of atrial fibrillation. Among 2.5 million patient observations, 7.7% had atrial fibrillation, with the prevalence increasing 3-fold from 3.5%(1992) to 10.7%(2006). The number of affected patients increased from 3620 to 23,893 (6.6-fold) during this period. Older age, male gender, and several comorbid conditions were associated with increased risk for atrial fibrillation. Compared with otherwise similar Caucasians, the prevalence of atrial fibrillation rates was substantially lower for blacks, Asians, and Native Americans. One-year mortality was twice as high among hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation compared with those without (39% versus 19%), and this increased risk was constant during the 15 years of the study. In conclusion, the prevalence of diagnosed atrial fibrillation among patients receiving hemodialysis in the United States is increasing, varies by race, and remains associated with substantially increased mortality. Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for incident atrial fibrillation requires further investigation.
Malleshappa Pavan, Ashwinikumar Aiyangar, Anup Chaudhari, Prashanth Rajputh, Ravi Ranganath, Shah Arunkumar Babulal
Department of Nephrology, Lilavati Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai, India. email@example.com
Kidney failure is the principal cause of death in scleroderma and accounts for at least 50% of deaths in this disease. Management of scleroderma-related end-stage renal disease requires some form of renal replacement therapy. Survival up to 18 months has been reported in one patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Surviving for more than 1 year on automated peritoneal dialysis has not been reported. We report a patient with scleroderma-related end-stage renal disease treated with automated peritoneal dialysis with steady state control of uremia and hypertension at 18 months of follow-up.
UK Renal Registry 11th Annual Report (December 2008): Chapter 12 Epidemiology of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia amongst patients receiving Renal Replacement Therapy in England in 2007.
Derby City General Hospital, Derby, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
From April 2007, all centres providing Renal Replacement Therapy in England were asked to provide additional data on patients with Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia using a secure web-based system. Data were recorded on modality of treatment and the type of vascular access in use at diagnosis and in the previous 28 days. From April 2007 until March 2008, 188 discrete episodes of MRSA bacteraemia were reported in patients receiving dialysis for established renal failure. Over the same period 4,448 MRSA bacteraemias were reported in England, indicating that 4.2% of all cases occurred in dialysis patients. Of the 188 episodes, additional data from the renal centres were available in 92 cases (49%). All patients with completed records were on haemodialysis at the time of the bacteraemia. Of those, 65/92 (70.7%) were using venous catheters, the majority tunnelled lines (n = 55, 59.8%), and 2 other cases had used venous catheters in the previous 28 days. The relative risk of MRSA bacteraemia was about 100 fold higher for a dialysis patient in comparison to the general population and 8 fold higher for a patient using a catheter in comparison to a fistula. The mean rate for all patients was 0.92 +/- 0.85 episodes/100 prevalent dialysis patients/year but the rate varied between renal centres with a range of 0-3.28. Using just haemodialysis patients as the denominator, the mean was 1.14 +/- 0.95 episodes/100 patients/year with a range of 0-3.93. Compared to previous Registry reports, absolute numbers of reported MRSA bacteraemias has fallen by approximately 62% from 2004. Many centres have substantially reduced the numbers of cases. Dialysis patients are at increased risk of MRSA bacteraemia; this is closely associated with the use of venous catheters. The rate of MRSA bacteraemia is falling substantially within the prevalent dialysis population, but with variation in performance between centres.
Louisiana Department of Health, USA.
This report presents autopsy trends in Louisiana for 1999-2006 data and provides some comparison with national data for 2003. Mortality data for Louisiana was collected from the field 'autopsy' on the Certificate of Death from 1999-2006 and compared with national data for the year 2003. The overall autopsy rate was 9.3% in Louisiana versus 7.7% in the United States (U.S.) in 2003. Autopsy rates were higher than those of the U.S. in almost all categories of personal factors (gender, race and age group). Louisiana's autopsy levels were generally greater for both natural disease (3.7% versus 3.5% for the U.S.) and the high autopsy rate group (61.1% versus 54.3% for the U.S.).
Department of Medicine, MetroHealth System Campus, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a complex disease affecting more than 20 million individuals in the United States. Progression of CKD is associated with a number of serious complications, including increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, anemia, and metabolic bone disease. CKD patients should be assessed for the presence of these complications and receive optimal treatment to reduce their morbidity and mortality. A multidisciplinary approach is required to accomplish this goal.
Background: To our knowledge, no detailed analysis exists of the incidence and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among Hispanics in the United States. In previous studies, the rates for Hispanics have not been reported separately from other racial or ethnic groups. Methods: We used information on patients diagnosed as having HCC from 13 registries in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database of the National Cancer Institute to calculate race-specific, age-adjusted incidence rates (AIR) between 1992 and 2002. We also used California and Texas state death records from between 1979 and 2001 to calculate race-specific, age-adjusted mortality rates for liver cancer excluding intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. For Hispanics and Asians/Pacific Islanders, the rates were calculated for native-born subjects and immigrants separately. Results: In SEER, the yearly AIRs were higher by 1.2-fold in Hispanics than in blacks (6.3 vs 5.0 per 100 000 person-years of the underlying US population) and by 2.7-fold than in non- Hispanic whites (2.4 per 100 000 person-years) but lower than in Asians/Pacific Islanders (10.8 per 100 000 person-years). The median age at HCC diagnosis in Hispanics (64 years) was intermediate between whites (the oldest) and blacks (the youngest). Between the periods 1992-1995 and 2000-2002, there was a 31% increase in the incidence of HCC in Hispanic men and a 63% increase in Hispanic women. The race-specific, age-adjusted mortality rates were remarkably similar in California and Texas and were highest in immigrant Asian/Pacific Islanders followed by native Hispanics. The rates for native Hispanic men were more than twice as high as those for immigrant Hispanic men. For Texas, the rates for native Hispanic men were 65% higher than those for immigrant Hispanic men. Conclusion: Hispanics in the United States have high rates of HCC that are second only to Asians/Pacific Islanders.<br />
Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University School of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology/BMT, Children's Hospital, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, USA. email@example.com
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) accounts for 7% of cancer in children and adolescents in the United States, or approximately 1000 cases annually. NHL in the pediatric population differs from that observed in adult patients with respect to staging systems, histologic subtypes of disease, treatment, and outcomes. Although more than 90% of pediatric NHL is of high-grade histology, more than 80% of patients achieve long-term event-free survival with modern therapy. This review focuses on current treatments for pediatric NHL and some of the differences between NHL observed in pediatric and adult patients.
Section of Gastroenterology, the Houston Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2002 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND To our knowledge, no detailed analysis exists of the incidence and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among Hispanics in the United States. In previous studies, the rates for Hispanics have not been reported separately from other racial or ethnic groups. METHODS We used information on patients diagnosed as having HCC from 13 registries in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database of the National Cancer Institute to calculate race-specific, age-adjusted incidence rates (AIR) between 1992 and 2002. We also used California and Texas state death records from between 1979 and 2001 to calculate race-specific, age-adjusted mortality rates for liver cancer excluding intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. For Hispanics and Asians/Pacific Islanders, the rates were calculated for native-born subjects and immigrants separately. RESULTS In SEER, the yearly AIRs were higher by 1.2-fold in Hispanics than in blacks (6.3 vs 5.0 per 100 000 person-years of the underlying US population) and by 2.7-fold than in non-Hispanic whites (2.4 per 100 000 person-years) but lower than in Asians/Pacific Islanders (10.8 per 100 000 person-years). The median age at HCC diagnosis in Hispanics (64 years) was intermediate between whites (the oldest) and blacks (the youngest). Between the periods 1992-1995 and 2000-2002, there was a 31% increase in the incidence of HCC in Hispanic men and a 63% increase in Hispanic women. The race-specific, age-adjusted mortality rates were remarkably similar in California and Texas and were highest in immigrant Asian/Pacific Islanders followed by native Hispanics. The rates for native Hispanic men were more than twice as high as those for immigrant Hispanic men. For Texas, the rates for native Hispanic men were 65% higher than those for immigrant Hispanic men. CONCLUSION Hispanics in the United States have high rates of HCC that are second only to Asians/Pacific Islanders.