Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-4712.
Am J Bot. 2010 Dec ;97 (12):1915-25 21616840
Immunohistochemical investigation of the necrotrophic phase of the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in the biocontrol of hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata; Papilionaceae).
Southern Weed Science Research Unit (now Crop Production Systems Research Unit), USDA-ARS, P. O. Box 350, Stoneville, Mississippi 38776 USA.
• Premise of the study: Fungal plant pathogens exert much of their effect on plant cells through alterations in the host cell walls. However, obtaining biochemical proof for this change is difficult because of the relatively small number of cells that are affected by the pathogen relative to the bulk of host tissue. In this study, we examined the differences in host wall composition between infected and uninfected areas of seedlings of the weed hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata) that were treated with the biocontrol agent Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. • Methods: To determine the changes in cell wall composition, we used semi-thin sections and a battery of antibody probes that recognize components of the cell wall and immunogold-silver cytochemistry to visualize the probes. • Key results: A loss of specific plant cell wall polysaccharides in the region surrounding the primary fungal infection and the creation of a defensive layer by the plant to limit the fungal invasion were the two most obvious changes noted in this study. At the invasion site, there was significant loss of rhamnogalacturon-1 (RGI) and esterified and de-esterified homogalacturonan (HG)-reactive epitopes from the cell walls. In contrast, boundary tissue between the vascular tissue and the fungal lesion reacted more strongly with antibodies that recognize arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and xyloglucans than in unaffected areas. • Conclusions: These data strongly indicate a role of pectinases in the invasion of the biocontrol agent and the importance of extensins, AGPs, and xyloglucans as defense by the host.
Demethylation of oligogalacturonides by FaPE1 in the fruits of the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca triggers metabolic and transcriptional changes associated with defence and development of the fruit.
Sonia Osorio, Aureliano Bombarely, Patrick Giavalisco, Björn Usadel, Camilla Stephens, Irene Aragüez, Nieves Medina-Escobar, Miguel A Botella, Alisdair R Fernie, Victoriano Valpuesta
Departamento de Biología Molecular y Bioquímica, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain.
Ectopic expression of the strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) gene FaPE1 encoding pectin methyl esterase produced in the wild species Fragaria vesca partially demethylated oligogalacturonides (OGAs), which conferred partial resistance of ripe fruits to the fungus Botrytis cinerea. Analyses of metabolic and transcriptional changes in the receptacle of the transgenic fruits revealed channelling of metabolites to aspartate and aromatic amino acids as well as phenolics, flavanones, and sesquiterpenoids, which was in parallel with the increased expression of some genes related to plant defence. The results illustrate the changes associated with resistance to B. cinerea in the transgenic F. vesca. These changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in the auxin content of the receptacle of the ripe fruits of transgenic F. vesca, and enhanced expression of some auxin-repressed genes. The role of these OGAs in fruit development was revealed by the larger size of the ripe fruits in transgenic F. vesca. When taken together these results show that in cultivated F. ananassa FaPE1 participates in the de-esterification of pectins and the generation of partially demethylated OGAs, which might reinforce the plant defence system and play an active role in fruit development.
Abscisic acid deficiency causes changes in cuticle permeability and pectin composition that influence tomato resistance to Botrytis cinerea.
Katrien Curvers, Hamed Seifi, Grégory Mouille, Riet de Rycke, Bob Asselbergh, Annelies Van Hecke, Dieter Vanderschaeghe, Herman Höfte, Nico Callewaert, Frank Van Breusegem, Monica Höfte
Department of Plant Biotechnology and Genetics, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
A mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) with reduced abscisic acid (ABA) production (sitiens) exhibits increased resistance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. This resistance is correlated with a rapid and strong hydrogen peroxide-driven cell wall fortification response in epidermis cells that is absent in tomato with normal ABA production. Moreover, basal expression of defense genes is higher in the mutant compared with the wild-type tomato. Given the importance of this fast response in sitiens resistance, we investigated cell wall and cuticle properties of the mutant at the chemical, histological, and ultrastructural levels. We demonstrate that ABA deficiency in the mutant leads to increased cuticle permeability, which is positively correlated with disease resistance. Furthermore, perturbation of ABA levels affects pectin composition. sitiens plants have a relatively higher degree of pectin methylesterification and release different oligosaccharides upon inoculation with B. cinerea. These results show that endogenous plant ABA levels affect the composition of the tomato cuticle and cell wall and demonstrate the importance of cuticle and cell wall chemistry in shaping the outcome of this plant-fungus interaction.
Chitosan Oligosaccharides Modulate the Supramolecular Conformation and the Biological Activity of Oligogalacturonides in Arabidopsis.
Unité de Recherche en Biologie Cellulaire Végétale, Facultés Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur, Belgium.
Plant cell walls undergo remodeling during growth and development and are the first target of many invading pathogens. Acidic pectin (homogalacturonans) binds calcium and forms chain dimers called egg boxes and even multimers at higher calcium ion concentrations. Chitosan, the deacetylated form of chitin produced by fungi when invading plant tissues, is a cationic polymer that can interact with negatively charged pectin. The interaction between chitosan oligomers (COS) and pectic egg boxes was investigated using 2F4, a monoclonal antibody specific for calcium-associated dimers of pectin. Depending on the size of the pectic molecules, the COS to pectin ratio, the degree of polymerization and the degree of acetylation of COS in the mixture, the calcium-induced egg box conformation of oligogalacturonides (OGA) was strongly stabilized or destroyed. The biological activity of COS-stabilized egg boxes was assayed on Arabidopsis cell suspensions. COS-OGA egg boxes strongly enhanced extracellular alkalinization and decreased potassium fluxes compared to control COS and OGA alone. Furthermore, OGA rescued Arabidopsis from cell death induced by higher concentrations of deacetylated COS. The stabilized COS-OGA egg boxes could constitute a combined emergency signal that informs plant cells on both cell wall degradation and pathogen presence, triggering a much stronger response than individual components alone.
Sequential Expression of Bacterial Virulence and Plant Defense Genes During Infection of Tomato with Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.
L Chalupowicz, M Cohen-Kandli, O Dror, R Eichenlaub, K-H Gartemann, G Sessa, I Barash, S Manulis-Sasson
ABSTRACT The molecular interactions between Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and tomato plant were studied by following the expression of bacterial virulence and host-defense genes during early stages of infection. The C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis genes included the plasmid-borne cellulase (celA) and the serine protease (pat-1), and the serine proteases chpC and ppaA, residing on the chp/tomA pathogenicity island (PAI). Gene expression was measured following tomato inoculation with Cmm382 (wild type), Cmm100 (lacking the plasmids pCM1 and pCM2), and Cmm27 (lacking the PAI). Transcriptional analysis revealed that celA and pat-1 were significantly induced in Cmm382 at initial 12 to 72 h, whereas chpC and ppaA were highly expressed only 96 h after inoculation. Interdependence between the expression of chromosomal and of plasmid-located genes was revealed: expression of celA and pat-1 was substantially reduced in the absence of the chp/tomA PAI, whereas chpC and ppaA expressions were reduced in the absence of the virulence plasmids. Transcription of chromosomal genes involved in cell wall degradation (i.e., pelA1, celB, xysA, and xysB), was also induced at early stages of infection. Expression of the host-defense genes, chitinase class II and pathogenesis-related protein-5 isoform was induced in the absence of the PAI at early stages of infection, suggesting that PAI-located genes are involved in suppression of tomato basal defenses.
A gene expression analysis of syncytia laser microdissected from the roots of the Glycine max (soybean) genotype PI 548402 (Peking) undergoing a resistant reaction after infection by Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode).
Department of Biological Sciences, Mississippi State University, Harned Hall, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA. email@example.com
The syncytium is a nurse cell formed within the roots of Glycine max by the plant parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines. Its development and maintenance are essential for nematode survival. The syncytium appears to undergo two developmental phases during its maturation into a functional nurse cell. The first phase is a parasitism phase where the nematode establishes the molecular circuitry that during the second phase ensures a compatible interaction with the plant cell. The cytological features of syncytia undergoing susceptible or resistant reactions appear the same during the parasitism phase. Depending on the outcome of any defense response, the second phase is a period of syncytium maintenance (susceptible reaction) or failure (resistant reaction). In the analyses presented here, the localized gene expression occurring at the syncytium during the resistant reaction was studied. This was accomplished by isolating syncytial cells from Glycine max genotype Peking (PI 548402) by laser capture microdissection. Microarray analyses using the Affymetrix soybean GeneChip directly compared Peking syncytia undergoing a resistant reaction to those undergoing a susceptible reaction during the parasitism phase of the resistant reaction. Those analyses revealed lipoxygenase-9 and lipoxygenase-4 as the most highly induced genes in the resistant reaction. The analysis also identified induced levels of components of the phenylpropanoid pathway. These genes included phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chalcone isomerase, isoflavone reductase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase. The presence of induced levels of these genes implies the importance of jasmonic acid and phenylpropanoid signaling pathways locally at the site of the syncytium during the resistance phase of the resistant reaction. The analysis also identified highly induced levels of four S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes, the EARLY-RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 2 gene and the 14-3-3 gene known as GENERAL REGULATORY FACTOR 2. Subsequent analyses studied microdissected syncytial cells at 3, 6 and 9 days post infection (dpi) during the course of the resistant reaction, resulting in the identification of signature gene expression profiles at each time point in a single G. max genotype, Peking.
Oligosaccharin and ABA synergistically affect the acquisition of freezing tolerance in winter wheat.
Alexey I Zabotin, Tatyana S Barisheva, Oksana I Trofimova, Tatyana E Toroschina, Irina A Larskaya, Olga A Zabotina
Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kazan, P.O. Box 30, Russia.
In this paper, we continue our studies of the previously discovered [O.A. Zabotina, D.A. Ayupova, O.N. Larskaya, O.N. Nikolaeva, G.I. Petrovicheva, A.I. Zabotin, Physiologically active oligosaccharides, accumulating in the roots of winter wheat during adaptation to low temperature, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 45 (1998) 262] oligosaccharin (physiologically active oligosaccharide) GXAG, which stimulates the acquisition of freezing tolerance in winter varieties of Triticum aestivum L. The transient accumulation of GXAG in the tissues of winter wheat correlates with the temporal activation of cell wall glycosidases during the first hours of cold acclimation (2 degrees C). This finding suggests that the oligosaccharin is liberated as a result of the intensification of hemicellulose turnover. At low concentrations, GXAG initiates the acquisition of freezing tolerance in winter plants, in a manner similar to ABA, even at room temperature. The resultant effect of ABA and GXAG on the freezing tolerance of winter wheat depends on the sequence of pre-treatments with these two factors. When seedlings are pre-treated with GXAG a few hours before treatment with ABA, the effect is synergistic, and its impact depends on the duration of pre-treatment with GXAG. When ABA is applied first, the resultant effect on freezing tolerance is additive. The results obtained here lead to the conclusion that oligosaccharin, accumulating during the first hours of cold acclimation, functions as a partner of ABA during the initiation of freezing tolerance acquisition in winter plants. We hypothesize that GXAG increases cell receptivity to ABA signaling.
Ripening-regulated susceptibility of tomato fruit to Botrytis cinerea requires NOR but not RIN or ethylene.
Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.
Fruit ripening is a developmental process that is associated with increased susceptibility to the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Histochemical observations demonstrate that unripe tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit activate pathogen defense responses, but these responses are attenuated in ripe fruit infected by B. cinerea. Tomato fruit ripening is regulated independently and cooperatively by ethylene and transcription factors, including NON-RIPENING (NOR) and RIPENING-INHIBITOR (RIN). Mutations in NOR or RIN or interference with ethylene perception prevent fruit from ripening and, thereby, would be expected to influence susceptibility. We show, however, that the susceptibility of ripe fruit is dependent on NOR but not on RIN and only partially on ethylene perception, leading to the conclusion that not all of the pathways and events that constitute ripening render fruit susceptible. Additionally, on unripe fruit, B. cinerea induces the expression of genes also expressed as uninfected fruit ripen. Among the ripening-associated genes induced by B. cinerea are LePG (for polygalacturonase) and LeExp1 (for expansin), which encode cell wall-modifying proteins and have been shown to facilitate susceptibility. LePG and LeExp1 are induced only in susceptible rin fruit and not in resistant nor fruit. Thus, to infect fruit, B. cinerea relies on some of the processes and events that occur during ripening, and the fungus induces these pathways in unripe fruit, suggesting that the pathogen itself can initiate the induction of susceptibility by exploiting endogenous developmental programs. These results demonstrate the developmental plasticity of plant responses to the fungus and indicate how known regulators of fruit ripening participate in regulating ripening-associated pathogen susceptibility.
Pectin methylesterase NaPME1 contributes to the emission of methanol during insect herbivory and to the elicitation of defence responses in Nicotiana attenuata.
Max-Planck-Institute for Chemical Ecology, Department of Molecular Ecology, Hans-Knöll-Str. 8, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) catalyse the demethylation of pectin within plant cell walls, releasing methanol (MeOH) in the process. Thus far, PMEs have been found to be involved in diverse processes such as plant growth and development and defence responses against pathogens. Herbivore attack increases PME expression and activity and MeOH emissions in several plant species. To gain further insights into the role of PMEs in defence responses against herbivores, the expression of a Manduca sexta oral secretion (OS)-inducible PME in Nicotiana attenuata (NaPME1) was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing. Silenced lines (ir-pme) showed 50% reduced PME activity in leaves and 70% reduced MeOH emissions after OS elicitation compared with the wild type (WT), demonstrating that the herbivore-induced MeOH emissions originate from the demethylation of pectin by PME. In the initial phase of the OS-induced jasmonic acid (JA) burst (first 30 min), ir-pme lines produced WT levels of this hormone and of jasmonyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile); however, these levels were significantly reduced in the later phase (60-120 min) of the burst. Similarly, suppressed levels of the salicylic acid (SA) burst induced by OS elicitation were observed in ir-pme lines even though wounded ir-pme leaves contained slightly increased amounts of SA. This genotype also presented reduced levels of OS-induced trypsin proteinase inhibitor activity in leaves and consistently increased M. sexta larvae performance compared with WT plants. These latter responses could not be recovered by application of exogenous MeOH. Together, these results indicated that PME contributes, probably indirectly by affecting cell wall properties, to the induction of anti-herbivore responses.
Measurement of oligochitosan-tobacco cell interaction by fluorometric method using europium complexes as fluorescence probes.
Department of Biotechnology, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, PR China.
The interaction of oligochitosan and tobacco cells has been investigated by fluorometric method using two Eu(3+) complexes as the probes in this work. Based on the reaction of tobacco cells with oligochitosan conjugated to a strongly fluorescent Eu(3+) complex 4,4'-bis(1'',1'',1'',2'',2'',3'',3''-heptafluoro-4'',6''-hexanedion-6''-yl)chlorosulfo-o-terphenyl-Eu(3+)(oligochitosan-BHHCT-Eu(3+) conjugate), the binding kinetic process of oligochitosan-tobacco cells was fluorescently imaged. The results indicate that oligochitosan can be specifically bound to the walls as well as the membranes of tobacco cells. A sensitive and selective Eu(3+) complex luminescence probe specific for singlet oxygen,[4'-(10-methyl-9-anthryl)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-6,6''-diyl]bis(methylenenitrilo)tetrakis (acetate)-Eu(3+), was used for developing a new time-resolved fluorescence assay method for the determinations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and peroxidase produced in the cells during the interaction of oligochitosan and tobacco cells. The assays are sensitive with the detection limits of 32 nM for IAA, and 1.2 nM for peroxidase, respectively. The concentration changes of IAA and peroxidase induced by oligochitosan in tobacco cells reveal that oligochitosan can effectively induce the increase of IAA concentration, accompanied by the decrease of peroxidase concentration. These results give a primary and reliable evidence to explain the growth-promoting mechanism of oligochitosan on the plants at molecular level.
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Identification of high-affinity binding sites for the hepta-beta-glucoside elicitor in membranes of the model legumes Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus.
The University of Georgia, Complex Carbohydrate Research Center and Department of Botany, Athens 30602-4712, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Previous studies have led to the identification and characterization of specific, high-affinity binding sites for a hepta-beta-glucoside elicitor in soybean. A survey of plant species for elicitor-binding activity reveals that among the plants tested, the hepta-beta-glucoside elicitor is only recognized by plants belonging to the legume family. We have characterized in detail the glucan elicitor-binding site in the model legume Medicago truncatula Gaertn., and partially characterized the site in Lotus japonicus. These sites have characteristics that are very similar to the one in soybean, with dissociation constants of 4.7 and 8.9 nM respectively. The elicitor-binding sites from both plants are stable during solubilization with non-ionic alkylglycoside detergents. However, differences are observed in the abundance of the binding sites and their selectivity towards structurally related analogues of the hepta-beta-glucoside elicitor. Our results suggest that similar, but perhaps not identical, binding sites for the hepta-beta-glucoside elicitor exist in diverse legumes, but not in plants outside of the legume family.
Oligosaccharide elicitors in host-pathogen interactions. Generation, perception, and signal transduction.
Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens 30602-4712, USA.
Solubilization of functional plasma membrane-localized hepta-beta-glucoside elicitor-binding proteins from soybean.
University of Georgia, Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, Athens.
Total membranes prepared from roots of soybean (Glycine max L.) seedlings have previously been shown to contain proteinaceous binding site(s) for a hepta-beta-glucoside elicitor of phytoalexin accumulation. The hepta-beta-glucoside elicitor-binding proteins have now been shown to co-migrate with a plasma membrane marker enzyme (vanadate-sensitive H(+)-ATPase) on linear sucrose density gradients. With the use of detergents, the elicitor-binding proteins have been solubilized in functional form from soybean root membranes. The nonionic detergents n-dodecylsucrose, n-dodecylmaltoside, and Triton X-114, at concentrations of 5 to 10 mg/mL, each solubilizes between 50 and 60% of the elicitor-binding activity in a single extraction of the membranes. A zwitterionic detergent, N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propane-sulfonate (ZW 3-12), also solubilizes about 40% of the total binding activity at detergent concentrations between 1 and 2 mg/mL, but the total binding activity recovered is only approximately 50% of that recovered with the nonionic detergents. The elicitor-binding proteins solubilized with either n-dodecylsucrose or ZW 3-12 retain the high affinity for radiolabeled hepta-beta-glucoside elicitor (apparent dissociation constant [Kd]= 1.8 nM and 1.4 nM, respectively) that was observed with the membrane-localized binding proteins (apparent Kd = 1 nM). Competitive ligand-binding experiments with several structurally related synthetic oligoglucosides demonstrate that the solubilized binding proteins retain specificity for elicitor-active oligosaccharides, irrespective of the detergent used for solubilization. Moreover, the binding affinities of the oligoglucosides for the solubilized binding proteins correlate well with their abilities to induce phytoalexin accumulation in soybean cotyledon tissue. Gel-permeation chromatography of n-dodecylsucrose-solubilized elicitor-binding proteins demonstrate that the bulk of the elicitor-binding activity is associated with large detergent-protein micelles (relative molecular weight > 400,000). Our results suggest that n-dodecylsucrose is a suitable detergent for solubilizing elicitor-binding proteins from soybean root membranes with minimal losses of binding activity. More importantly, we demonstrate that solubilization does not significantly after the binding properties of the proteins for elicitor-active oligoglucosides.
Department of Botany, University of Georgia, Athens 30602-4712.
Complex Carbohydrates Research Centre, University of Georgia, Athens 30602-4712, USA.
We are studying the cellular signalling pathway leading to pterocarpan phytoalexin biosynthesis in soybean that is induced by a branched hepta-beta-glucoside originally isolated from the mycelial walls of the phytopathogenic oomycete, Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. glycinea. Our research has focused on the first step in this signal pathway, namely the specific recognition of the hepta-beta-glucoside elicitor by plasma-membrane-localized binding protein(s) in soybean cells. Binding of a radio-iodinated derivative of the elicitor-active hepta-beta-glucoside by membrane elicitor-binding proteins is specific, reversible, saturable and of high affinity (Kd = 0.75 nM). After solubilization using the non-ionic detergent n-dodecylsucrose, the elicitor-binding proteins retain the binding affinity (Kd = 1.8 nM) for the radiolabelled elicitor and the binding specificity for elicitor-active oligoglucosides. A direct correlation is observed between the ability of elicitor-active and structurally related inactive oligoglucosides to displace labelled elicitor from the elicitor-binding proteins and the elicitor activity of the oligosaccharides. Thus, the elicitor-binding proteins recognize the same structural elements of the hepta-beta-glucoside elicitor that are essential for its phytoalexin-inducing activity, suggesting that the elicitor-binding proteins are physiological receptors for the elicitor. Current research is directed toward the purification and cloning of the hepta-beta-glucoside elicitor-binding proteins. Purification and characterization of the hepta-beta-glucoside-binding protein(s) or their corresponding cDNAs is a first step toward elucidating how the hepta-beta-glucoside elicitor triggers the signal transduction pathway that ultimately leads to the synthesis of phytoalexins in soybean.
Location of Acidovorax citrulli in infested watermelon seeds is influenced by the pathway of bacterial invasion.
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.
Watermelon seeds can become infested by Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of cucurbits via penetration of the ovary pericarp or by invasion of the pistil. This study investigated the effect of these invasion pathways on A. citrulli localization in seeds. Seed samples (n = 20 or 50 seeds/lot) from pistil- and pericarp-inoculated lots were dissected into testa, perisperm-endosperm (PE) layer, and embryo tissues and tested for A. citrulli by species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by plating on semiselective media. Less than 8% of the testa samples were A. citrulli-positive regardless of the method of seed inoculation. Additionally, the difference in percentages of contaminated testae between the two seed lot types was not significant (P = 0.64). The percentage of A. citrulli-positive PE layer samples as determined by real-time PCR assay was significantly greater for seeds from pistil-inoculated lots (97%) than for seeds from pericarp-inoculated lots (80.3%). The mean percentage of A. citrulli-positive embryo samples was significantly greater for seeds from pistil-inoculated lots (94%) than for seeds from pericarp-inoculated lots (≈8.8%)(P = 0.0001). Removal of PE layers and testae resulted in a significant reduction in BFB seed-to-seedling transmission percentage for seeds from pericarp-inoculated lots (14.8%) relative to those from pistil-inoculated lots (72%). Additionally, using immunofluorescence microscopy, A. citrulli cells were observed in the PE layers and the cotyledons of pistil-inoculated seeds but only in the PE layers of pericarp-inoculated seeds. These results suggest that pericarp invasion results in superficial contamination of the testae and PE layers while pistil invasion results in the deposition of A. citrulli in seed embryos.
Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, Departments of Pathology & Molecular Medicine & Medicine, McMaster University, Ontario, Canada.
BACKGROUND & AIMS:: Mucosal changes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are characterized by ulcerative lesions accompanied by a prominent infiltrate of immune cells, and alteration in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-producing enterochromaffin cells. We investigated the role of 5-HT in colonic inflammation in mice. METHODS:: Colitis was induced with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) in tryptophan hydroxylase1-deficient (TPH1(-/-)) mice, which have markedly reduced 5-HT in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and in mice given the 5-HT synthesis inhibitor parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA). RESULTS:: Delayed onset and decreased severity of clinical disease and significantly lower macroscopic and histological damage scores were observed in TPH1(-/-) mice, compared with wild-type mice, and in mice given PCPA after induction of colitis by DSS. This was associated with down-regulation of macrophage infiltration and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. 5-HT stimulated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines from macrophages collected from the peritoneal cavity of wild-type mice; this process was inhibited by a NFkappaB inhibitor, indicating a critical role for NFkB signaling in 5-HT-mediated activation of immune cells. Restoration of 5-HT levels in TPH1(-/-) mice by the 5-HT precursor 5-HTP increased the severity of DSS-induced colitis. We also observed significant reduction in severity of colitis in TPH1(-/-) mice after induction of DNBS-colitis. CONCLUSION:: 5-HT is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation in experimental colitis. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms of GI inflammation and could lead to new therapeutic strategies for inflammatory disorders.
Department of Chemical Engineering, Laval University, Sainte-Foy (Québec), Canada G1K 7P4.
A research project was initiated to examine the possibility of using supercritical carbon dioxide for in situ recovery of ethanol during its production by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a preliminary step, it was necessary to study the behavior of ethanol production under high-pressure conditions, up to 7 MPa (1000 psi). The results show that pressure has a significant inhibiting effect on the production of ethanol. There is a significant decrease in the initial rate of production as well as in the final ethanol concentration as pressure is increased. This decrease is more significant when carbon dioxide is used to pressurize the fermentor. The pressure affects the ability of the cells to produce ethanol in a reversible way. When the fermentor is returned to atmospheric conditions, the reaction resumes its normal fermentation rate.
Host-Pathogen Interactions : XXXIII. A Plant Protein Converts a Fungal Pathogenesis Factor into an Elicitor of Plant Defense Responses.
Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, P. O. Box 5677, Athens, Georgia 30613.
This paper describes the effect of a plant-derived polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) on the activity of endopolygalacturonases isolated from fungi. PGIP's effect on endopolygalacturonases is to enhance the production of oligogalacturonides that are active as elicitors of phytoalexin (antibiotic) accumulation and other defense reactions in plants. Only oligogalacturonides with a degree of polymerization higher than nine are able to elicit phytoalexin synthesis in soybean cotyledons. In the absence of PGIP, a 1-minute exposure of polygalacturonic acid to endopolygalacturonase resulted in the production of elicitor-active oligogalacturonides. However, the enzyme depolymerized essentially all of the polygalacturonic acid substrate to elicitor-inactive oligogalacturonides within 15 minutes. When the digestion of polygalacturonic acid was carried out with the same amount of enzyme but in the presence of excess PGIP, the rate of production of elicitor-active oligogalacturonides was dramatically altered. The amount of elicitor-active oligogalacturonide steadily increased for 24 hours. It was only after about 48 hours that the enzyme converted the polygalacturonic acid into short, elicitor-inactive oligomers. PGIP is a specific, reversible, saturable, high-affinity receptor for endopolygalacturonase. Formation of the PGIP-endopolygalacturonase complex results in increased concentrations of oligogalacturonides that activate plant defense responses. The interaction of the plant-derived PGIP with fungal endopolygalacturonases may be a mechanism by which plants convert endopolygalacturonase, a factor important for the virulence of pathogens, into a factor that elicits plant defense mechanisms.
Host-Pathogen Interactions : XIX. THE ENDOGENOUS ELICITOR, A FRAGMENT OF A PLANT CELL WALL POLYSACCHARIDE THAT ELICITS PHYTOALEXIN ACCUMULATION IN SOYBEANS.
Department of Chemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309.
An elicitor of phytoalexin accumulation (endogenous elicitor) is solubilized from purified cell walls of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr., cv. Wayne) by extracting the walls with hot water or by subjecting the walls to partial acid hydrolysis. The endogenous elicitor obtained from soybean cell walls binds to an anion exchange resin. The elicitor-active material released from the resin contains oligosaccharides rich in galacturonic acid; small amounts of rhamnose and xylose are also present. The preponderance of galacturonic acid in the elicitor-active fragments suggests that the elicitor is, in fact, a fragment of a pectic polysaccharide. This possibility is supported by the observation that treatment of the wall fragments with a highly purified endopolygalacturonase destroys their ability to elicit phytoalexin accumulation. This observation, together with other evidence presented in this paper, suggests that galacturonic acid is an essential constituent of the elicitor-active wall fragments. Endogenous elicitors were also solubilized by partial hydrolysis from cell walls of suspension-cultured tobacco, sycamore, and wheat cells.
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John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Colney Lane, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK. email@example.com
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.
A mixture of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides from wheat seedling was permethylated and analyzed by electrospray ion trap MS and GC-MS. The presence of isomeric structures differing in degree of branching and position of the branched residue along the xylose backbone was demonstrated for oligosaccharides with four and five monosaccharide residues. No isomeric structures were found for oligosaccharides with three monosaccharide residues. Linkage analysis by GC-MS reveals that xylose residues were substituted with single arabinoxyl residues at C-3.
Chitosan and chitin oligomers increase phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities in soybean leaves.
Department of Plant Science, Macdonald Campus of McGill University, 21,111 Lakeshore, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, H9X 3V9, Canada.
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 184.108.40.206) and tyrosine ammonia-lyase (TAL, 4.3.1.), the key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, are inducible in response to biotic (such as chitin from fungal cell walls) and abiotic cues. Application of chitin and chitosan to soybean leaf tissues caused increased activity of PAL and TAL enzymes. The elevation of enzyme activity was dependent on the chain length of the oligomers and time after treatment. The hexamer of chitin and pentamer of chitosan produced the maximum activities at 36 h after treatment as compared to controls. Total phenolic content of soybean leaves increased following chitosan and chitin oligomer treatments, showing a positive correlation between enzyme activity and total phenolic content.
Bioorganische Chemie, Gebäude NW1 Universität Bayreuth, Germany.
Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, PO Box 16, Tsukuba, Norin Kenkyu, Danchi-nai, Ibaraki 305-8687, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Oligogalacturonides [oligomers composed of (1-->4)-linked alpha-D-galactosyluronic acid residues] with degrees of polymerization (DP) from 1 to 10, and a tri-, penta-, and heptasaccharide generated from the backbone of rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) were labeled at their reducing ends using aqueous 2-aminobenzamide (2AB) in the presence of sodium cyanoborohydride in over 90% yield. These derivatives were analyzed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) and structurally characterized by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS) and by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The 2AB-labeled oligogalacturonides and RG-I oligomers are fragmented by endo- and exo-polygalacturonase and by Driselase, respectively. 2AB-labeled oligogalacturonide is an exogenous acceptor for galacturonosyltransferase of transferring galacturonic acid from UDP-GalA. Thus, the 2AB-labeled oligogalacturonides and RG-I oligomers are useful for studying enzymes involved in pectin degradation and biosynthesis and may be of value in determining the biological functions of pectic fragments in plants.
Characterization of the sugar-binding specificity of the toxic lectins isolated from Abrus pulchellus seeds.
Departamentos de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Cx. Postal 6033, Fortaleza-Ceara, Brasil, 60.451-970.
The sugar-binding specificity of the toxic lectins from Abrus pulchellus seeds was investigated by combination of affinity chromatography of glycopeptides and oligosaccharides of well-defined structures on a lectin-Sepharose column and measurement of the kinetic interactions in real time towards immobilized glycoproteins. The lectins showed strong affinity for a series of bi- and triantennary N-acetyllactosamine type glycans. The related asialo-oligosaccharides interact more strongly with the lectins. The best recognized structures were asialo-glycopeptides from fetuin. Accordingly, the kinetic interaction with immobilized asialofetuin was by far the most pronounced. Human and bovine lactotransferrins and human serotransferrin interacted to a lesser extent. The interaction with asialofetuin was inhibited by galactose in a dose dependent manner. Lactose, N-acetyllactosamine and lacto-N-biose exhibited similar degree of inhibition while N-acetylgalactosamine was a poor inhibitor. These results suggested that the carbohydrate-binding site of the Abrus pulchellus lectins was specific for galactose and possess a remarkable affinity for the sequences lactose [beta-D-Gal-(1-->4)-D-Glc], N-acetyllactosamine [beta-D-Gal-(1-->4)-D-GlcNAc] and lacto-N-biose [beta-D-Gal-(1-->3)-D-GlcNAc].
Proteins involved in the production and perception of oligosaccharides in relation to plant and animal development.
Leiden University, Institute of Molecular Plant Sciences, The Netherlands.
Chitin oligosaccharides and their derivatives are involved in developmental and defence-related signalling pathways. Major advances include the structural identification of lectins involved in development that bind chitin oligosaccharides and the links between chitin oligosaccharide and hyaluronan synthesis. Also, recent advances in the understanding of the biological role of oligosaccharides are summarised in a model for multistep glycan recognition.
Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, M409 Walters Life Science Building, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-0845, USA.
Affinity cross-linking of the plasma membrane fraction to an (125)I-labeled chitin oligosaccharide led to the identification and characterization of an 85-kD, chitin binding protein in plasma membrane-enriched fractions from both suspension-cultured soybean cells and root tissue. Inhibition analysis indicated a binding preference for larger (i.e. degrees of polymerization = 8) N-acetylated chitin molecules with a 50% inhibition of initial activity value of approximately 50 nM. N-Acetyl-glucosamine and chitobiose showed no inhibitory effects at concentrations as high as 250 microM. It is noteworthy that the major lipo-chitin oligosaccharide Nod signal produced by Bradyrhizobium japonicum was also shown to be a competitive inhibitor of ligand binding. However, the binding site appeared to recognize the chitin portion of the Nod signal, and it is unlikely that this binding activity represents a specific Nod signal receptor. Chitooligosaccharide specificity for induction of medium alkalinization and the generation of reactive oxygen in suspension-cultured cells paralleled the binding activity. Taken together, the presence of the chitin binding protein in the plasma membrane fraction and the specificity and induction of a biological response upon ligand binding suggest a role for the protein as an initial response mechanism for chitin perception in soybean (Glycine max).
Preparation and characterisation of oligosaccharides produced by nitrous acid depolymerisation of chitosans.
Norwegian Biopolymer Laboratory (NOBIPOL), Department of Biotechnology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491, Trondheim, Norway. email@example.com
Two chitosans with widely different chemical composition (fraction of N-acetylated units (F(A))<0.001 and F(A)=0.59), were degraded by nitrous acid, to obtain the reactive 2,5-anhydro-D-mannose-(M-) unit at the new reducing end. The fully N-acetylated and fully N-deacetylated oligomers were separated by size-exclusion chromatography. Both the chemical structure and purity were studied by one- and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR methods. The fully N-acetylated oligomers were found to be stable, whereas the N-deacetylated oligomers reacted intermolecularly by a Schiff base reaction between the 2-amino group on the N-deacetylated units and the M-units, facilitating the cleavage of the glycosidic bond next to the M-unit and the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF).