A comparison of cetylpyridinium chloride, triclosan and chlorhexidine mouthrinse formulations for effects on plaque regrowth.
Department of Periodontology, Dental School, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff, England.
A relatively small number of agents are used in mouthrinse products, although the possible variability in the final formulations is enormous. The aim of this study was to compare equal concentrations of 3 antimicrobial agents, in simple formulations, for plaque inhibition. This 4-day plaque regrowth study was a 5-cell, randomised, double blind cross-over design, involving 20 healthy human volunteers. The mouthrinse formulations were aqueous 0.05% solutions of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), chlorhexidine and triclosan, together with a 0.1% CPC and a minus active control rinse. On Day 1, from a zero plaque baseline, volunteers ceased normal oral hygiene and rinsed 2x daily for 1 min. with 10-ml volumes of the allocated rinses. On Day 5, plaque was scored by index and area. All rinses produced lower mean plaque values compared to control, but unlike the CPC and chlorhexidine rinses, the differences with triclosan did not always reach significance. The CPC and chlorhexidine rinses were always significantly more effective than the triclosan rinse. The greatest plaque inhibition was with 0.1% CPC although rarely significantly greater than the 0.05% CPC and chlorhexidine rinses which were similar in efficacy. The results indicate that further studies on lower concentration chlorhexidine solutions are warranted.
Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University—Bozeman, Bozeman, Montana 59717-3980, USA.
The penetration and overall efficacy of six mouthrinse actives was evaluated by using an in vitro flow cell oral biofilm model. The technique involved preloading biofilm cells with a green fluorescent dye that leaked out as the cells were permeabilized by a treatment. The loss of green color, and of biomass, was observed by time-lapse microscopy during 60 min of treatment under continuous flow conditions. The six actives analyzed were ethanol, sodium lauryl sulfate, triclosan, chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), cetylpyridinium chloride, and nisin. Each of these agents effected loss of green fluorescence throughout biofilm cell clusters, with faster action at the edge of a cell cluster and slower action in the cluster center. The time to reach half of the initial fluorescent intensity at the center of a cell cluster, which can be viewed as a combined penetration and biological action time, ranged from 0.6 to 19 min for the various agents. These times are much longer than the predicted penetration time based on diffusion alone, suggesting that anti-biofilm action was controlled more by the biological action time than by the penetration time of the active. None of the agents tested caused any removal of the biofilm. The extent of fluorescence loss after 1 h of exposure to an active ranged from 87 to 99.5%, with CHX being the most effective. The extent of fluorescence loss in vitro, but not penetration and action time, correlated well with the relative efficacy data from published clinical trials.
Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine, Czech Republic.
Biomechanical preparation alone does not completely eradicate microorganisms from the root canal, hence the next logical step is to perform root canal procedures in conjunction with antimicrobials. The use of an antimicrobial agent improves the efficacy and prognosis of endodontic treatment. This review enumerates the most widely used antimicrobial agents, their mechanism of action and their potential use in reducing the microbial load.
In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate.
Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in comparison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative bacilli were collected from 20 volunteers (10 with a clinically healthy periodontium and 10 presenting biofilm-associated gingivitis). Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results indicated that the test solution inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms from the volunteers saliva as well as that of the standard strains at the MIC dilution of 1:20, whereas the MIC dilution of 0.12% chlorhexidine against the same bacteria was 1:80. Thus, even though the tested mouthrinse solution presented an in-vitro antimicrobial activity superior to that of a placebo, it was inferior to that of chlorhexidine.
Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60612-7211, USA.
INTRODUCTION Patients undergoing fixed appliance treatment are at greater risk for increases in salivary and plaque levels of Streptococcus mutans and an elevated risk of dental caries. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) is known to be an effective antiplaque agent. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether incorporating CPC into a commercially available orthodontic adhesive would impart antimicrobial properties without altering the diametral tensile strength of the material. METHODS CPC was added to a commercially available, filled, photo-activated bracket adhesive (Transbond XT, Unitek 3M, Monrovia, Calif) in varying amounts, to obtain specimens with CPC concentrations of 0%(control), 2.5%, 5.0%, and 10.0% by weight. Adhesive discs 2 mm thick and 4 mm in diameter were incubated with Streptococcus mutans for 48 hours. The diameters of the zones of bacterial inhibition were measured in an agar disc diffusion assay; specimens of each concentration were tested every other week for 196 days. Other discs were soaked in distilled water for 180 days. The amount of CPC released into the water from the modified discs was measured and recorded on days 7, 15, 30, 60, and 180 by using a spectrophotometer at 254 nm. Diametral tensile strength of the modified adhesive discs was measured with a universal testing machine, and the effect of water aging was also evaluated. RESULTS The measured zone of bacterial inhibition increased as CPC content increased. All CPC-adhesive specimens maintained antimicrobial activity up to 196 days. No zone of bacterial inhibition was measured around the control specimens. CPC release was observed through the end of 180-day period, but the greatest release was recorded in the first week. There was no significant difference (P <.05) in diametral tensile strength between the 2.5% CPC-adhesive group and the control; there were significant differences among the 5.0% and 10.0% CPC-adhesive groups and the control. Water aging had no significant effect on diametral tensile strength other than decreasing it for the test group containing 10.0% CPC. CONCLUSIONS The incorporation of 2.5% CPC in adhesive material imparted antimicrobial activity without altering diametral tensile strength.
Efficacy of a 0.15% benzydamine hydrochloride and 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinse on 4-day de novo plaque formation.
Section of Graduate Periodontology, Faculty of Odontology, University Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a mouth-rinse formulation combining benzydamine hydrochloride and cetylpyridinium chloride (BNZ+CPC) in preventing de novo plaque formation, in comparison with CPC and placebo mouth rinses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a controlled, observer-blind, cross-over study. In this model of plaque re-growth, subjects received a session of oral prophylaxis and were directed to withdraw oral hygiene measures for the next 4 days, using only the mouth rinse assigned. The outcome parameters were the plaque index (PlI) and gingival index (GI). In addition, microbiological evaluation of the subgingival microflora, by means of culture, was performed, as well as patient-based variables. Data analysis was carried out using anova for Latin-square design. RESULTS: The analysis of variance showed a significant statistical difference between the BNZ+CPC association and placebo (p<0.0001). No differences between CPC and placebo were detected considering multiple comparisons between treatments. The 90% confidence interval of the differences between BNZ+CPC and CPC showed no equivalence between treatments, being the PlI lower in the BNZ+CPC group. No significant difference between groups in GI was observed. Mean anaerobic colony-forming units (CFU) demonstrated a significant increase between visits in all groups (p<0.001) and differences among groups were not significant. Subjects treated with BNZ+CPC frequently reported "tingling mouth" and "numbness mouth". CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of the study model, the BNZ+CPC combination showed a statistically significant plaque-inhibitory capacity, as compared with the placebo mouth rinse, and an additive effect as compared with CPC. No relevant clinical or microbiological adverse effects were detected.
The effect of a polyhexamethylene biguanide mouthrinse compared with a triclosan rinse and a chlorhexidine rinse on bacterial counts and 4-day plaque re-growth.
Department of Operative Dentistry, Periodontology, and Paediatric Dentistry, University of Greifswald, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVES For various clinical applications, polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) has been used for many years as an antiseptic in medicine. Recently, a 0.04% and a 0.12% PHMB mouthwash were shown to inhibit plaque re-growth and to reduce oral bacterial counts. In this study, a 0.2% PHMB mouthrinse (A) was compared with a positive control 0.12% aqueous chlorhexidine solution (B), a commercially available 0.3% triclosan/2.0% polyvinyl methyl ether maleic acid copolymer mouthrinse (Colgate Total Plax)(C), and a negative control placebo rinse (10% ethanol, flavour)(D). MATERIALS AND METHODS The controlled clinical study was a double blind, randomized, four replicate cross - over design. Plaque re-growth was assessed with the Turesky et al.(1970) modification of the Quigley & Hein (1962) plaque index. The antibacterial effect was assessed by taking bacterial counts on the tooth surface (smears from the buccal surface of 16/26) and mucosa (smears from the buccal mucosa in opposite of area 16/26) after the professional prophylaxis and after the first rinse with the preparations on day 1 and prior to the clinical examination on day 5. Sixteen volunteers participated and, on day 1 of each study period were rendered plaque-free, ceased toothcleaning, and rinsed twice daily with the allocated mouthrinse. On day 5, plaque was scored and smears were collected according to the protocol. A 10-day wash-out period was carried out between each rinse evaluation. Data were analysed using ancova with Bonferroni HSD adjustment for multiple comparisons (colony forming units per sample) with a significance level alpha=0.05. RESULTS The 0.2% PHMB mouthrinse (A) was significantly better at inhibiting plaque than the placebo (D), but significant less effective than the 0.12% aqueous chlorhexidine solution (B). There is no significant difference between A and the 0.3% triclosan/2.0% copolymer mouthrinse (C). Bacterial count reductions (tooth surface and mucosa) with PHMB (A) were significantly greater compared with the placebo (D) and triclosan (C), but significantly lower compared with chlorhexidine (B)(tooth surface) and equally effective compared with chlorhexidine (B)(mucosa). CONCLUSION Consistent with previous studies, a PHMB mouthrinse was shown to inhibit plaque re-growth and to reduce oral bacterial counts, indicating that PHMB could be an alternative to established mouthrinses in preventive applications.
A 0.05% cetyl pyridinium chloride/0.05% chlorhexidine mouth rinse during maintenance phase after initial periodontal therapy.
Marc Quirynen, Catherine Soers, Mandy Desnyder, Christel Dekeyser, Martine Pauwels, Daniel van Steenberghe
Department of Periodontology, Oral Pathology and Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
BACKGROUND Chlorhexidine (CHX) mouth rinse/spray can still be considered the gold standard in the chemical prevention of plaque formation and development of gingivitis. The product unfortunately has some side effects, such as extrinsic tooth staining, poor taste, taste disturbance, sensitivity changes in tongue, pain and irritation because of the alcohol content. These side effects led to the search of new formulations. METHODS In this double-blind, randomized, long-term, parallel study, 48 moderate periodontitis patients rinsed for 6 months (starting immediately after a "one-stage, full-mouth" disinfection) with one of the following products: CHX 0.2%+alcohol (Corsodyl), CHX 0.05%+ cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) 0.05% and no alcohol (Perio-Aid Maintenance, a new formulation), or the placebo of the latter. After 1, 3 and 6 months a series of clinical and microbiological parameters were recorded for the supra- and subgingival area as well as for saliva. RESULTS Although there was a significant treatment impact (mechanical debridement) in all groups, both CHX solutions further decreased both plaque and gingivitis indices (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively), when compared with placebo. This was also reflected by additional reductions in the number of CFU/ml of aerobic and especially anaerobic species and by a suppression of Streptococcus mutans (versus an overgrowth for the placebo), in all niches. Differences between both CHX solutions were never encountered. The subjective ratings were slightly in favour of the new CHX-CPC formulation when compared with the other CHX-alcohol formulation, especially for taste of the product (p<0.05), but less impressive for the staining of teeth and tongue. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study demonstrated the potential of a new CHX 0.05%+CPC 0.05% non-alcoholic formulation as an effective antiplaque agent for long-term use with reduced subjective side effects.
Department of Preventive Dental Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Pierre.email@example.com
The prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases is targeted at the control of dental plaque. In this context, chemical agents could represent a valuable complement to mechanical plaque control. The active agents should prevent biofilm formation without affecting the biological equilibrium within the oral cavity. Depending on the goals of the preventive measures, various strategies may be considered. Anti-plaque agents with properties other than bactericidal or bacteriostatic activities may be used in primary prevention. In this approach, a modest antiplaque effect may be sufficient or even desirable, as it would decrease the side effects of the active agent. Antimicrobial agents are best indicated in secondary and tertiary prevention, as the objectives are to restore health and to prevent disease recurrence. The rational is to prevent or delay subgingival recolonization by pathogenic micro-organisms. The development of in vitro oral biofilm models certainly represents a major advance for studying and testing oral anti-plaque agents in recent years. The results of these studies have shown that chlorhexidine, hexetidine, delmopinol, amine fluoride/stannous fluoride, triclosan, phenolic compounds, among others, may inhibit biofilm development and maturation as well as affect bacterial metabolism.
Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Freiburg, Germany.
OBJECTIVES Toothpastes are good vehicles for antibacterial substances to exert a prolonged effect. This effect depends on the substantivity and ability to interfere with plaque metabolism and/or vitality. It was the purpose of this clinical, randomized 2 x 4 cell crossover study to evaluate and to compare the antibacterial effects of two toothpastes (Colgate Total(R), COL and Parodontax(R), PAR) applied as slurries on established plaque over 24 h (Part I) and their effect on 4-day plaque regrowth (Part II). Chlorhexamed(R)(0.1%; CHX) and water served as positive and negative controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS After professional toothcleaning eight students were asked to refrain from all mechanical hygiene measures for the next 72 h. After 48 h plaque was sampled and vitality of the plaque flora examined (baseline, VF0%). The subjects then rinsed for 1 min with 15 mL of one of the test or control solutions. Every second hour up to 14 h and 24 h after rinsing, plaque sampling and staining was performed to assess plaque vitality (VF2-24, Part I). In Part II, the classical 4-day plaque regrowth design was used with two rinses (1 min) a day as the only oral hygiene measure. Vitality values were assessed on day 1 and day 4 (VF1, VF2). At day 4, teeth were stained to assess the whole mouth plaque index (PlI) and to evaluate the percentage of plaque area (PA) of the anterior teeth. RESULTS Compared to placebo, all active rinses reduced plaque vitality significantly over a period of 24 h (Part I). PAR, COL and CHX revealed reductions of 18-31%, 28-50% and 19-50%, respectively. In Part II, similar reductions of all parameters were found for all active rinses (PAR 12-30%, COL 34-51%, CHX 40-64%). CONCLUSIONS Colgate Total has shown a significant action on plaque regrowth and a high substantivity during 24 h, while Parodontax revealed a more moderate but still significant effect.
Division of Restorative Dentistry, Dental School, Bristol, UK.
BACKGROUND AND AIM The experimental gingivitis model is a well-established method in comparing the chemical antiplaque activity of agents and products. The aim of the present study was to use time in order to achieve an exit level of bleeding on probing (BOP) as the primary outcome variable. METHODS The study was a single blind, randomised four treatment parallel group design employing 76 healthy volunteers. The cohort was accepted into the study proper if they achieved a level of </= 25% BOP after a 5-week pre-study oral hygiene phase. At baseline, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 weeks BOP, modified gingival index (MGI) and plaque index scores were obtained from each subject. After baseline, oral hygiene was suspended and subjects rinsed twice daily with one of the test rinses, namely: 1 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride 2 Control fluoride 3 0.2% chlorhexidine 4 0.3% triclosan Subjects were removed from the study when they achieved >/= 50% BOP. Using the baseline and exit BOP, MGI and plaque, a deterioration rate for each parameter was derived and used as the unit of analysis. RESULTS There were highly significant treatment differences for all three parameters. Paired analyses revealed chlorhexidine was highly significantly more effective than the other rinses for all three parameters. CPC and triclosan were not different from the control for BOP, but CPC was significantly different from the control for MGI and plaque, and triclosan was different from the control for plaque. There were no differences between the CPC and triclosan rinses. CONCLUSIONS The method achieved the expected result of differentiating between the chlorhexidine and the other rinses. Some modification of the method, primarily to group sizes, should improve specificity. The method has the considerable volunteer appeal of early exit, particularly when allocated to control or low activity treatments for plaque.
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Department of Periodontology, Dental School, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff, UK.
The optimum dose of chlorhexidine delivered by mouthrinse, which balances efficacy against local side-effects, is generally considered to be in the region of 20 mg 2 x daily. Unfortunately, there have been few dose-response studies for chlorhexidine mouthrinses and for these, only limited details are published. The aims of this study were to determine the dose response of chlorhexidine to plaque inhibition and position a 0.1% triclosan rinse within this model. 28 subjects took part in this 7-treatment, double-blind, randomised cross-over 4-day plaque regrowth study. The rinses were 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% chlorhexidine, 0.1% triclosan and minus active controls for chlorhexidine and triclosan. On day 1 from a zero plaque baseline, volunteers suspended tooth-cleaning and commenced supervised 2 x daily rinsing with 10 ml volumes of the allocated rinses. On Day 5, plaque was scored by index and area. Treatment differences between the 7 rinses were highly significant. A clear dose-response pattern was seen for chlorhexidine with mean plaque scores decreasing with increasing dose. Even at 0.01%, chlorhexidine showed considerable and significant plaque inhibition compared to control. Triclosan at 0.1% showed limited plaque inhibition and less than 0.01% chlorhexidine. The findings of this study suggest that consideration could be given to low concentration chlorhexidine rinses as adjuncts to oral hygiene.
Department of Periodontology, Dental School, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff.
The persistence of action or substantivity of an antimicrobial agent in the mouth relates to the plaque inhibitory action of that compound. Substantivity can be assessed by measuring the magnitude and duration of the fall in salivary bacteria following single rinses with antimicrobials. This was a randomised single-blind, cross-over study measuring the effects of single 60-s rinses of 5 mouthwash products on salivary bacterial counts in 14 healthy human volunteers. Effects over a 7-h period were compared with a chlorhexidine rinse product (positive control) and saline (negative control). All but one rinse, containing cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), significantly reduced bacterial counts compared to saline up to 5-7 h. No rinse produced the magnitude or duration of effect noted for chlorhexidine and decrements from baseline, with one exception, were highly significantly lower than with the chlorhexidine product. Comparing the 2 CPC rinses, the findings suggest that the activity of one product was vitiated by some other ingredient. The triclosan/copolymer, the essential oil/phenolic and one CPC products exhibited similar persistence. In those cases where information is available, these data are consistent with comparative plaque inhibitory findings for the products or their active ingredients. Again, it is concluded that the method is a useful screening and comparison test for the potential plaque inhibitory activity of antimicrobial oral hygiene products.
The effect of saliva derived from different individuals on the erosion of enamel and dentine. A study in vitro.
Applied Clinical Research Group, Department of Oral and Dental Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
The aim of this study was to determine if saliva from 14 subjects afforded different levels of protection to human enamel and dentine against erosion in vitro. Test specimens were exposed for 2 h to saliva and control specimens to water for 2 h followed by citric acid for 10 min. This cycle was carried out 12 times. Tissue loss measured by contact profilometry was highly significantly different between subjects. Erosion was significantly reduced by pre-treatment with saliva from 7 subjects (enamel) or 6 subjects (dentine). Saliva from 1 subject resulted in significantly more enamel erosion than control. Conclusion: Saliva from different donors affords different levels of protection against erosion.
A clinical study in situ to assess the effect of a food approved polymer on the erosion potential of drinks.
Division of Restorative Dentistry, Bristol Dental School, Lower Maudlin Street, Bristol BS1 2LY, UK.
OBJECTIVES The consumption of acidic soft drinks continues to rise as do concerns regarding effects of frequent intake. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of acidic soft drinks containing food approved polymers, on dental enamel. METHODS The study design was a single blind, randomised, five-treatment crossover clinical trial involving 15 healthy dentate subjects. Subjects wore an upper removable acrylic appliance retaining two enamel specimens and consumed 250ml of beverage four times/day for 10 days. The following beverages were tested:(1) unmodified acidic soft drink,(2) experimental acidic soft drink with 0.02% polyphosphate,(3) experimental acidic soft drink with 0.02% polyphosphate and 0.01% calcium,(4) experimental acidic soft drink with 0.02% polyphosphate and 0.03% xanthan gum, and (5) mineral water. Tissue loss was measured at days 5 and 10 of each study leg using a profilometer. RESULTS The order of erosion from most to least at day 10 was unmodified acidic soft drink>experimental acidic soft drink with polyphosphate>experimental acidic soft drink with polyphosphate+gum>experimental acidic soft drink with polyphosphate+calcium>mineral water. At day 10 the unmodified acidic soft drink was significantly (p=0.001) more erosive than all other drinks. CONCLUSIONS Unmodified acidic soft drink with the addition of polyphosphate alone or combined with calcium or xanthan gum are all effective at reducing erosion of enamel compared with the unmodified soft acidic drink.
Division of Restorative Dentistry, Bristol Dental School, Lower Maudlin Street, Bristol BS1 2LY, UK.
OBJECTIVES There has been a monumental increase in the consumption of soft drinks, fruit juices and sport drinks in the UK, the US, and many other countries. Previous investigations have demonstrated the erosive nature of these acidic soft drinks. The aim of this investigation was to determine the protective effects of an experimental fluoride-based toothpaste, containing sodium hexametaphosphate, against an erosive challenge on tooth enamel. METHODS The erosion of enamel by orange juice compared the experimental toothpaste with a benchmark sodium fluoride paste and negative control, water, in a 15-day in situ model; and the same in an in vitro enamel erosion model. Flat, polished human enamel samples with a surface profile of +/-0.1mum, were exposed to the three regimens in the single blind, crossover clinical study mimicked in vitro. Depths of the resulting eroded areas were measured using a profilometer. RESULTS There was significantly more erosive damage on the specimens exposed to the benchmark paste and water compared to the test paste in both the in situ and in vitro studies. CONCLUSIONS The data provide further support for tooth brushing before meals. Results of this study further suggest the sodium hexametaphosphate containing paste could be used to provide significant erosion protection in susceptible individuals over that provided by conventional fluoride products.
A study into the plaque-inhibitory activity of experimental toothpaste formulations containing antimicrobial agents.
Department of Oral & Dental Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. John.Moran@bristol.ac.uk
BACKGROUND/AIMS The use of specific antimicrobial agents in toothpastes may help reduce plaque and gingivitis. There would also appear to be some value in formulating products that contain combinations of such agents that may potentiate any activity present. The aims of this exploratory and pragmatic study were twofold:(1) Exploratory: to compare the effects on plaque re-growth of two zinc citrate/triclosan formulations, one of which contained bromochlorophene and hence demonstrate any additional beneficial effects produced by the addition of the phenol.(2) Pragmatic: to assess whether both pastes were significantly better than a benchmark control, proprietary fluoride toothpaste at inhibiting plaque formation. METHODS Following an initial prophylaxis to remove all plaque and calculus, toothpaste slurry rinses were used over a 96 h period by 24 volunteers, while omitting all other oral hygiene procedures. After 24, 48 and 96 h, plaque was measured by plaque area and by plaque index. For comparative purposes, a conventional commercial fluoride toothpaste rinse was also used as a benchmark control in this triple cross-over double-blind study. RESULTS With one exception, comparisons between the three pastes failed to show any significant differences in plaque accumulation at 96 h whether assessed by plaque index or area. At this time period, significantly more plaque was seen with the zinc citrate paste without bromochlorophene, compared with that of the control paste. CONCLUSIONS The findings from this study failed to demonstrate a plaque-inhibitory action from the two novel formulations beyond that of a conventional benchmark toothpaste, although overall levels of plaque formed by the volunteers, especially on the control paste were generally lower than in previous studies. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined whether the test formulations could exert a direct anti-inflammatory action against gingivitis by way of the triclosan delivery system. Neither test formulation was subsequently marketed.
Division of Restorative Dentistry, Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental Hospital, University of Bristol, Lower Maudlin Street, Bristol BS1 2LY, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVES The aim of the study was to develop and test a methodology in situ, which simulated the consumption of sports drinks. A secondary aim was to assess the acceptability of the method to sedentary participants. METHODS To select the sports drink for the study in situ, five commercially available sports drinks were examined for erosive potential in vitro. The study in situ was a single centre, 2-period, 2-treatment crossover study to compare the erosive effect of a commercially available sports drink (Test), with that of mineral water (Control), over 10 day periods on 10 healthy volunteers. Subjects wore upper removable appliances containing two human enamel specimens from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. The regimen of intake of the drinks was 350 ml in 10, 5-min rest, 650 ml in 25, 5-min rest, 500 ml in 10 and 5-min rest. Measurements of enamel loss were made on samples after 5 and 10 days by profilometry. RESULTS The in situ study showed a statistically significant difference in erosive potential between the test and control beverages. No specimen exposed to the control beverage displayed appreciable erosion. Erosion occurred with the test drink, but to a variable degree between subjects. The subjects unanimously found the drinking regimen unpleasant. CONCLUSIONS The sports drink caused significantly more erosion in situ than water and as seen in other studies, there was marked variation in susceptibility to erosion between subjects. The new drinking regimen was designed to simulate pre, during and post-exercise intake. Although all the sedentary subjects participating in this study reported that they found the volume of fluids consumed over a short period of time excessive it is unlikely that this would prove problematic in the exercise environment.
A comparison of a reformulated potassium citrate desensitising toothpaste with the original proprietary product.
Division of Restorative Dentistry, Dental School, Bristol BS1 2LY, UK.
OBJECTIVES The recent tendency for toothpaste manufacturers to combine active ingredients for benefits to a number of oral problems requires that such combinations do not vitiate the action of any one agent. The aim of this study was to compare the desensitising effects of a modified formulation with the established product. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was a randomised, double blind, two treatment parallel design comparing an existing potassium citrate toothpaste product (Positive Control) with the same formulation to which triclosan and zinc citrate had been added (Test). A total of 56 subjects with dentine hypersensitivity (DH) completed the 8 week study period. At baseline, days 14 and 56 visual analogue scale scores were recorded by the subjects in response to air evaporative and cold water stimuli. RESULTS Both groups showed improvements, mostly statistically significant, from baseline to day 14 and through to day 56. Most data favoured the Test paste but differences were, for the most part, not significant. CONCLUSIONS It is concluded that the addition of known anti-plaque agents to an established potassium salt based desensitising toothpaste did not adversely affect the activity of the product in the treatment of DH.
Dentine hypersensitivity: a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of a fluoride-sensitive teeth mouthrinse.
Division of Restorative Dentistry, Dental School, Bristol, UK.
OBJECTIVES Potassium and fluoride salts have been used in the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity (DH). The primary aim of this study was to compare a fluoride-containing mouthrinse product with a placebo rinse for the treatment of DH. A secondary aim was to compare effects on plaque index (PI) and gingivitis index (GI). MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was a double-blind, randomised, two-treatment parallel design involving 91 subjects with DH. At screening, an air evaporative stimulus (AES) was used for selection. Approximately 4 weeks later, at the baseline visit, DH was recorded, using a response-based visual analogue scale (VAS) from upper and lower incisors, canines, premolars and first molars in response to AES and from two to six teeth in response to a cold water stimulus (CWS). PI and GI were also recorded. Subjects were then allocated the test or placebo rinse. On days 28 and 56, VAS scores were again recorded for AES and CWS, with PI and GI recorded at day 56. RESULTS Both groups improved symptoms to day 28 and again to day 56. The majority of the data favoured the test rinse as more effective but there was no clear evidence for a statistically significant difference between test and placebo. PI at lingual sites approached significance for the test rinse. CONCLUSIONS The placebo response has again been shown to play a significant role in DH clinical trials and narrows the range over which to detect treatment differences. Study designs to minimise or prevent the placebo response in DH seem worthy of consideration.
Division of Restorative Dentistry, Dental School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
BACKGROUND AND AIM There is growing evidence that the new generation of electric toothbrushes are more effective than manual toothbrushes. The primary aim of these studies was to compare, as an indication of the stage of development, the plaque removal properties of a prototype battery powered toothbrush with an established product. A secondary aim was to utilise the data to appraise plaque accumulation together with the patterns of removal. METHOD The three studies presented used the same, single-examiner, randomised, single-blind cross-over design involving up to 24 healthy volunteers. The prototype brushes, E6500 versions s1, s2 and s3 and E8000 with head speeds of 6500 and 8000 oscillations/min were compared with a similar design marketed product (MP) with a head speed of 8800 oscillations/min. All brushes had circular brush heads with oscillating rotating actions. Subjects accumulated plaque over a 4-day period during which no oral hygiene measures were performed. On day 4, the plaque accumulation was scored by index. Subjects then used the allocated toothbrush for 2 min. This was followed by a re-scoring of the remaining plaque. RESULTS Studies 1 and 2 showed significantly less plaque removed by prototype E6500 (s1) and prototype E6500 (s2), respectively, than by MP. In study 3, prototype E8000 removed similar quantities of plaque to MP (approximately 65%). In contrast prototype E6500 (s3) only removed 60% of accrued plaque. Differences, however, did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS The study methodology was appropriate to distinguish between the study toothbrushes and was furthermore able to establish a level of comparability for one of the prototype modifications with a similar MP.
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Department of Public Health Dentistry, Kothiwal Dental College and Research Centre, Kanth Road, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.
BACKGROUND Chewing gum is a habit practiced regularly by a relatively high proportion of individuals in many countries including India, and its use has increased within the last decade. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of sugar-free and sugar chewing gums on plaque deposition. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study is a double blind clinical trial involving 16 healthy volunteers (divided into 2 groups) in a 4-day plaque regrowth model. On day one, subjects received professional prophylaxis, suspended oral hygiene measures, and commenced chewing their allocated product. Gum chewing was one piece chewed for 30 minutes 3 times a day. On day 5, subjects were scored for plaque with the help of Silness and Loe Index. RESULTS Results show sugar-free group have a lesser mean plaque score of 0.98 as compare to sugar group (1.23), though this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION The sugar-free gums can be used as an adjunct to mechanical oral hygiene measures.
Int J Dent Hyg. 2012 May 15;: 22583681
Authors' affiliations: A Singh, A Daing, J Dixit, Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, C.S.M. Medical University (Erstwhile KGMC), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
To cite this article: Int J Dent Hygiene DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-5037.2012.00556.x Singh A, Daing A, Dixit J. The effect of herbal, essential oil and chlorhexidine mouthrinse on de novo plaque formation. Abstract: Background: Brushing and flossing are the most widely accepted procedures, the 'gold standard', for controlling bacterial plaque, but these mechanical methods have limitations. Based on results derived from several clinical trials, essential oil (EO) mouthrinse (Listerine(®)) and a chlorhexidine mouthrinse have been accepted by ADA to be used as an adjunct to routine mechanical oral hygiene measures however, both of them are associated with side effects, therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the antiplaque efficacy of a new herbal formulation as compared to an EO and chlorhexidine rinse. Materials and method: The study was a single blind parallel randomized controlled trial involving four groups. 48 volunteers refrained from all oral hygiene measures for 4 days, but rinsed instead twice daily with 10 ml of a herbal (HM), EO, chlorhexidine (CHX) or a placebo (PL) solution. Plaque index and plaque area (PA) was assessed on Day 4. Results: The HM and EO showed a significant inhibition of plaque regrowth compared to PL (P < 0.001), but the lowest values of PI and PA were obtained with CHX. Statistically significant difference in plaque parameters was observed when CHX was compared to HM and EO, and HM to EO rinse. Conclusion: The new herbal mouthrinse had a promising plaque inhibitory potential but it not as efficacious as chlorhexidine in preventing plaque regrowth.
Acta Odontol Scand. 2012 Feb 9;: 22320714
Effect of a third application of toothpastes (1450 and 5000 ppm F), including a 'massage' method on fluoride retention and pH drop in plaque.
Department of Cariology, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg , Gothenburg , Sweden.
Abstract Objective. The aim was to investigate fluoride (F) retention in plaque, saliva and pH drop in plaque using high-F toothpaste (5000 ppm F) or standard toothpaste (1450 ppm F) twice a day or 3-times a day. A method using the toothpaste as a 'lotion' and massaging the buccal surfaces with the fingertip was also evaluated. Materials and methods. The investigation had a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over design and 16 subjects participated in six brushing regimes:(1) 5000 ppm F; twice a day,(2) 5000 ppm; 3-times/day,(3) 5000 ppm; twice a day, plus the 'massage' method once a day,(4) 1450 ppm F; twice a day,(5) 1450 ppm; 3-times/day and (6) 1450 ppm; twice a day, plus the 'massage' method once a day. The outcome measure was F retention in plaque, saliva and the plaque-pH change after a sucrose rinse. Results. The highest F concentration was found using high-F toothpaste (No 1-3) and differed significantly from those with 1450 ppm (No 4-6). Brushing with high-F toothpaste 3-times a day (No 2) resulted in a 3.6-times higher F saliva value compared with standard toothpaste twice a day (No 4)(p < 0.001). Increasing the frequency of application, from twice to 3-times a day, increased the F retention in plaque significantly when the two methods for application 3-times a day were pooled (p < 0.05). Brushing with 5000 and 1450 ppm toothpastes twice a day plus the 'massage' once a day resulted in the same F concentration in saliva and plaque as brushing 3-times a day with the same paste. Conclusion. A third application of toothpaste is increasing the F retention and toothpaste as a 'lotion' and massaging the buccal surfaces with the fingertip may be a simple and inexpensive way of delivering F a third time during the day.
A comparative evaluation of the antibacterial efficacy of honey in vitro and antiplaque efficacy in a 4-day plaque regrowth model in vivo: preliminary results.
S Aparna, S Srirangarajan, Veena Malgi, Krishnanand P Setlur, R Shashidhar, Swati Setty, Srinath Thakur
Department of Periodontics, Bangalore Institute of Dental Sciences and Post Graduate Research Centre, Bangalore, India. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Honey has a potent broad-spectrum antibacterial action that may make it suitable for "anti-infective" treatment of periodontal disease. The aims of this study are as follows: 1) to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of honey against oral bacteria and compare the same with 0.2% chlorhexidine; and 2) to compare antiplaque efficacy in vivo with chlorhexidine. METHODS The study was conducted in two parts. In the in vitro part, the inhibitory effects of three test agents, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, honey mouthwash, and saline, against six oral bacteria at concentrations of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, and 512 μg/mL were tested in duplicate. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was set as the lowest concentration of the agent that completely inhibited the growth of the test species. The in vivo part consisted of a double-masked parallel clinical trial based on a 4-day plaque regrowth model. Sixty-six volunteers, 20 to 24 years of age, participated in the study, and the plaque scores were compared at baseline and at the end of 4 days. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for significance, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for pairwise comparison of the groups. The mean plaque scores were 1.77 ± 0.86, 1.64 ± 0.90, and 3.27 ± 0.83 for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. RESULTS The honey mouthrinse effectively inhibited the six tested microorganisms. The chlorhexidine gluconate rinse had the lowest MICs compared with honey and saline rinses for all test species examined. The in vivo results revealed that plaque formation was inhibited/reduced by chlorhexidine and honey rinses. CONCLUSION Honey has antibacterial action against tested oral microorganisms and also has antiplaque action.
Clinical and microbiological efficacy of an antimicrobial mouth rinse containing 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride in patients with gingivitis.
Authors' affiliations: M Rioboo, V García, J Serrano, Graduate Periodontology, Faculty of Odontology, University Complutense, Madrid, Spain J Serrano, D Herrera, M Sanz, ETEP (Etiology and Therapy of Periodontal Diseases) Research Group, University Complutense, Madrid, Spain D Herrera, M Sanz, Laboratory of Microbiology, Faculty of Odontology, University Complutense, Madrid, Spain.
To cite this article: Int J Dent Hygiene 10, 2012; 98-106 DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-5037.2011.00523.x Rioboo M, García V, Serrano J, O'Connor A, Herrera D, Sanz M. Clinical and microbiological efficacy of an antimicrobial mouth rinse containing 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride in patients with gingivitis. Abstract: Objectives: the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the use of a mouth rinse and dentifrice with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in patients with gingivitis. Methods: the study was designed as a 1-month, double-blind, parallel, randomized clinical trial comparing a negative control regimen (minus active ingredients dentifrice and mouth rinse) with the test products (dentifrice and mouth rinse with 0.05% CPC) in terms of plaque and gingival indexes (PI, GI), patient-based and microbiological outcome variables. The comparisons in relation to the main outcome variables (PI and GI) were made by means of the t-test, either unpaired or paired for the intergroup and intragroup comparisons, respectively. Results: no differences were detected at baseline. Both groups showed statistically significant decreases in GI (0.17-0.19), without intergroup differences. The PI demonstrated a significant decrease of -0.12 in the test group and minor changes in the negative control group (increase of +0.01). Differences between groups showed a tendency towards statistical significance. A limited impact was observed for microbiological variables in both groups. Conclusion: the results of this study show limited benefits of the evaluated formulations as adjuncts to unsupervised oral hygiene in reducing plaque accumulation, and no effect on gingivitis.
Int J Dent Hyg. 2010 Nov 5;: 21356025
Plaque inhibitory effect of a 0.05% cetyl-pyridinium chloride mouth-rinse in a 4-day non-brushing model.
Authors' affiliations: V García, M Rioboo, J Serrano, Faculty of Odontology, University Complutense, Madrid, Spain A O'Connor, D Herrera, M Sanz, Laboratory of Microbiology, Faculty of Odontology, University Complutense, Madrid, Spain J Serrano, D Herrera, M Sanz, ETEP Research Group, University Complutense, Madrid, Spain.
To cite this article: Int J Dent HygieneDOI: 10.1111/j.1601-5037.2010.00490.x García V, Rioboo M, Serrano J, O'Connor A, Herrera D, Sanz M. Plaque inhibitory effect of a 0.05% cetyl-pyridinium chloride mouth-rinse in a 4-day non-brushing model. Abstract: Objectives: Results from clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of the adjunctive use of cetyl-pyridinium chloride (CPC) containing oral hygiene products have shown wide variability, probably due to differences in formulations. The objective of this study was to determine the inhibitory plaque effect of a 0.05% CPC mouth rinse in de novo plaque formation in a 4-day non-brushing experimental model. Materials and methods: The study was designed as a short-term double-blind randomized cross-over experimental model aimed to compare three products: a negative control (similar to the test product, without active ingredients), a positive control (with 0.12% chlorhexidine and CPC) and the test product (with 0.05% CPC) in terms of plaque index, gingival inflammation and microbiological variables. Results: Plaque levels after 4 days were 2.88 for the positive control, 3.86 for the negative control and 3.60 for the test. Differences among groups on day 4 were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Gingival index showed comparable values at baseline (P = 0.745), and significant increases were observed, with the exception of the positive control. Total colony forming units showed comparable values at baseline (P = 0.125) and significant increases were observed only in the negative control. Conclusions: The tested 0.05% CPC mouth-rinse is capable of inhibiting plaque formation.
The Effects of an Amine Fluoride/Stannous Fluoride and an Antimicrobial Host Protein Mouthrinse on Supragingival Plaque Regrowth.
Department of Oral Sciences, Section of Periodontology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
Background: Chlorhexidine (CHX)-containing mouthrinses are recommended as adjuncts to mechanical oral hygiene. The problem associated with side effects, however, has stimulated the search for alternative antiplaque agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the plaque inhibitory effects of two mouthrinses containing amine fluoride/stannous fluoride (ASF) and antimicrobial host proteins (lactoperoxidase, lysozyme and lactoferrin; LLL), respectively. Methods: The study was an observer-masked, randomized 4x4 Latin square cross-over design balanced for carryover effects, involving 12 healthy volunteers in a 4-day plaque regrowth model. A 0.12% CHX mouthrinse and a saline solution served as positive and negative controls, respectively. On day 1, subjects received professional prophylaxis, suspended oral hygiene measures, and commenced rinsing with their allocated rinses. On day 5, subjects were scored for disclosed plaque. Results: The ASF rinse showed a significant inhibition of plaque regrowth in comparison to both saline and LLL solutions, but the lowest plaque indices were obtained with the CHX formulation (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences between LLL rinse and saline (P > 0.05). Such pattern of efficacy was the same in anterior and posterior teeth and in vestibular and lingual surfaces as well, with the exception of the lingual anterior surfaces. In these sites, differences between the CHX and ASF rinses were not significant (P > 0.05). A significantly higher prevalence of side effects was found in subjects using the CHX product (P < 0.0042). Conclusions: Although the effect on plaque regrowth observed with 0.12% CHX rinsing was superior to that with ASF, the ASF rinse was not associated with side effects. These findings, together with those from long-term trials, suggest that the ASF rinse may represent an effective alternative to CHX rinse as an adjunct to oral hygiene. On the contrary, the LLL rinse did not significantly inhibit plaque regrowth.
J Dent. 2010 Jun ;38 Suppl 1 :S16-20 20621239
J&J Consumer & Personal Products Worldwide, Division of J&J Consumer Companies Inc, 185 Tabor Road, Morris Plains, NJ 07950, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The effects of an essential oil and an amine fluoride/stannous fluoride mouthrinse on supragingival plaque regrowth.
Department of Oral Sciences, Section of Periodontology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy. email@example.com
BACKGROUND The side effects of chlorhexidine (CHX) have stimulated the search for alternative antiplaque agents such as amine fluoride/stannous fluoride (ASF) and essential oils (EO). The aim of the study was to investigate the plaque-inhibiting effects of two commercially available mouthrinses containing ASF and EO, respectively. METHODS The study was an observer-masked, randomized, 5 x 5 Latin square cross-over design, balanced for carryover effects, involving 15 volunteers in a 4-day plaque regrowth model. A 0.12% CHX rinse and a saline solution served as positive and negative controls, respectively. On day 1, subjects received professional prophylaxis, suspended oral hygiene measures, and commenced rinsing with their allocated rinses. On day 5, subjects were scored for disclosed plaque. The ASF rinse was tested at two dosages: 10 and 20 ml (ASF-10 and ASF-20, respectively). RESULTS The ASF and EO rinses showed a significant inhibition of plaque regrowth compared to saline (P <0.0001), but the lowest plaque indices were obtained with the CHX product (P <0.01). There were no significant differences among products containing ASF-10, ASF-20, and EO (P >0.05). There was no correlation between the occurrence of side effects and the use of a particular rinse product (P >0.2). CONCLUSIONS ASF and EO mouthrinses exerted effective and similar plaque inhibition. The two dosages tested for ASF did not differ in plaque reduction. These findings, together with those from long-term trials, suggest that ASF and EO rinses may represent effective alternatives to CHX rinse as adjuncts to oral hygiene.
The effect of toothbrushing regimens on the plaque inhibitory properties of an experimental cetylpyridinium chloride mouthrinse.
Health Care Research Center, Procter & Gamble Company, Mason, OH 45040-8006, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various toothbrushing regimens with a standard fluoride dentifrice on the plaque inhibitory properties of an alcohol-free, high bioavailable 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouthrinse. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was a randomized, single-centre, examiner blind, four-period cross-over study involving 29 healthy subjects. Four treatment regimens were evaluated:(1) Toothbrushing with dentifrice followed by a water rinse (B-W, negative control);(2) Toothbrushing with dentifrice followed by a CPC mouthrinse use (B-CPC);(3) Toothbrushing with dentifrice followed by a water rinse and then a CPC mouthrinse use (B-W-CPC); and (4) Toothbrushing with dentifrice and waiting 60 min. prior to a CPC mouthrinse use (B-60 min.-CPC). Three days before the baseline exam of treatment periods, subjects were instructed to brush only the lingual surfaces of their teeth for up to 60 s twice daily. At baseline, subjects received a plaque exam using the Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein index (MQH) followed by a polishing on the lingual and buccal surfaces of their teeth. During treatment periods, subjects were asked to brush only the lingual surfaces of their teeth with a standard fluoride dentifrice. Rinsing with 20 ml of the experimental CPC solution was done for 30 s twice daily. The evening before the last day of treatment periods (Day 4), subjects were asked to refrain from any oral hygiene, eating, and drinking after brushing. On Day 4, plaque was scored using the MQH Index. A 10-day wash-out of normal oral hygiene was allowed between each of the four treatment periods. The data were analysed using analysis of covariance for cross-over designs. RESULTS Twenty-five to 29 subjects were evaluable at any given visit. With respect to unbrushed buccal and brushed lingual surfaces, all three CPC regimens had highly significantly (p < or = 0.0006) lower mean plaque scores than the B-W regimen, reductions ranging from 20% to 38% in magnitude. With respect to unbrushed surfaces, there was a significant difference between the B-CPC regimen and the B-60 min.-CPC regimen (p < 0.01) in favour of the latter regimen. No other pairwise treatment comparisons were statistically significant for unbrushed sites. Results for brushed surfaces and all sites combined showed that both the B-W-CPC and the B-60 min.-CPC groups reduced mean plaque levels significantly (p < or = 0.013) more than B-CPC. There were no statistically significant differences between B-W-CPC and B-60 min.-CPC for measurements of brushed, unbrushed, or all sites combined. CONCLUSIONS Results show that the alcohol-free, 0.07% high bioavailable CPC rinse provides an additive anti-plaque benefit beyond toothbrushing with a standard fluoride dentifrice regardless of the regimen. Of the regimens, a water rinse between toothbrushing and CPC rinsing enhances therapeutic efficacy while fitting into the patient's typical oral hygiene routine.