Characterization of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats in Belize, Central America.
USUHS, Bethesda, MD
Surveys for larvae of Anopheles darlingi Root were conducted in April, May, and August 1994 in riverine habitats of central Belize (Cayo and Belize districts). An. darlingi was present during both the dry and wet seasons. Larvae were encountered most frequently in patches of floating debris along river margins. The floating mats were often formed by bamboo hanging over the banks and dense submersed bamboo roots. Larvae were found less frequently in lake margins, small lagoons, and ground pools with submersed roots and patches of floating leaves or vegetation. In addition to their association with floating debris, larvae of An. darlingi were associated positively with shade and submersed plants in riverine environments. Samples from river habitats showed the larvae of Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann to be strongly associated with sun-exposed sites containing green or blue-green algae. Unlike An. darlingi, An. albimanus was an ubiquitous mosquito, the immatures of which occurred in a wide variety of riverine and nonriverine aquatic habitats. Based on published reports and our experience, the association of An. darlingi with river systems was verified, and its distribution in Central America and Mexico was mapped.
Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO Box 8031, 6700 EH Wageningen, The Netherlands. email@example.com
Anopheles darlingi is one of the most important malaria vectors in the Americas. In this era of new tools and strategies for malaria and vector control it is essential to have knowledge on the ecology and behavior of vectors in order to evaluate appropriateness and impact of control measures. This paper aims to provide information on the importance, ecology and behavior of An. darlingi. It reviews publications that addressed ecological and behavioral aspects that are important to understand the role and importance of An. darlingi in the transmission of malaria throughout its area of distribution. The results show that Anopheles darlingi is especially important for malaria transmission in the Amazon region. Although numerous studies exist, many aspects determining the vectorial capacity of An. darlingi, i.e. its relation to seasons and environmental conditions, its gonotrophic cycle and longevity, and its feeding behavior and biting preferences, are still unknown. The vector shows a high degree of variability in behavioral traits. This makes it difficult to predict the impact of ongoing changes in the environment on the mosquito populations. Recent studies indicate a good ability of An. darlingi to adapt to environments modified by human development. This allows the vector to establish populations in areas where it previously did not exist or had been controlled to date. The behavioral variability of the vector, its adaptability, and our limited knowledge of these impede the establishment of effective control strategies. Increasing our knowledge of An. darlingi is necessary.
Environmental, entomological, socioeconomic and behavioural risk factors for malaria attacks in Amerindian children of Camopi, French Guiana.
EPaT Team (EA3593), UFR de Médecine - Université des Antilles et de la Guyane, Cayenne, French Guiana.
BACKGROUND Malaria is a major health issue in French Guiana. Amerindian communities remain the most affected. A previous study in Camopi highlighted the predominant role of environmental factors in the occurrence of malaria. However, all parameters involved in the transmission were not clearly identified. A new survey was conducted in order to clarify the risk factors for the presence of malaria cases in Camopi. METHODS An open cohort of children under seven years of age was set up on the basis of biologically confirmed malaria cases for the period 2001-2009. Epidemiological and observational environmental data were collected using two structured questionnaires. Data were analysed with a multiple failures multivariate Cox model. The influence of climate and the river level on malaria incidence was evaluated by time-series analysis. Relationships between Anopheles darlingi human biting rates and malaria incidence rates were estimated using Spearman's rank correlation. RESULTS The global annual incidence over the nine-year period was 238 per 1,000 for Plasmodium falciparum, 514 per 1,000 for Plasmodium visa and 21 per 1,000 for mixed infections. The multivariate survival analysis associated higher malaria incidence with living on the Camopi riverside vs. the Oyapock riverside, far from the centre of the Camopi hamlet, in a home with numerous occupants and going to sleep late. On the contrary, living in a house cleared of all vegetation within 50 m and at high distance of the forest were associated with a lower risk. Meteorological and hydrological characteristics appeared to be correlated with malaria incidence with different lags. Anopheles darlingi human biting rate was also positively correlated to incident malaria in children one month later. CONCLUSIONS Malaria incidence in children remains high in young children despite the appearance of immunity in children around three years of age. The closeness environment but also the meteorological parameters play an important role in malaria transmission among children under seven years of age in Camopi.
Population dynamics, structure and behavior of Anopheles darlingi in a rural settlement in the Amazon rainforest of Acre, Brazil.
Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.
Anopheles darlingi is the major vector of malaria in South America, and its behavior and distribution has epidemiological importance to biomedical research. In Brazil, An. darlingi is found in the northern area of the Amazon basin, where 99.5% of the disease is reported. The study area, known as Ramal do Granada, is a rural settlement inside the Amazon basin in the state of Acre. Population variations and density have been analysed by species behaviour, and molecular analysis has been measured by ND4 mitochondrial gene sequencing. The results show higher density in collections near a recent settlement, suggesting that a high level of colonization decreases the vector presence. The biting activity showed higher activity at twilight and major numbers of mosquitos in the remaining hours of the night in months of high density. From a sample of 110 individual mosquitoes, 18 different haplotypes were presented with a diversity index of 0.895, which is higher than that found in other Anopheles studies. An. darlingi depends on forested regions for their larval and adult survival. In months with higher population density, the presence of mosquitoes persisted in the second part of the night, increasing the vector capacity of the species. Despite the intra-population variation in the transition to rainy season, the seasonal distribution of haplotypes shows no change in the structure population of An. darlingi.
Célia Basurko, Matthieu Hanf, René Han-Sze, Stéphanie Rogier, Philippe Héritier, Claire Grenier, Michel Joubert, Mathieu Nacher, Bernard Carme
Centre d'Investigation Clinique Epidémiologie Clinique Antilles Guyane CIC-EC CIE 802, Cayenne General Hospital, Cayenne, French Guiana.
The epidemiological profiles of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, are strongly associated with environmental conditions. An understanding of the effect of the climate on the occurrence of malaria may provide indirect insight into the anopheles mosquito vectors endemic to a particular region. The association between meteorological and hydrographical factors and the occurrence of malaria was studied in a village in French Guiana during an epidemic caused essentially by Plasmodium vivax. A cohort of confirmed cases of P. vivax malaria occurring between 2002 and 2007 was studied to search for an association between the number of new infection episodes occurring each month, mean, maximum and minimum monthly temperatures, cumulative rainfall for the month and the mean monthly height of the river bordering the village, with the aid of time series. Cross-correlation analysis revealed that these meteorological factors had large effects on the number of episodes, over a study period of 12 months. Climatic factors supporting the continuance of the epidemic were identified in the short-term (low minimum temperatures during the month), medium-term (low maximum temperatures two months before) and long-term (low maximum temperatures nine months before and high lowest level of the river 12 months before). Cross-correlation analysis showed that the effects of these factors were greatest at the beginning of the short rainy season. The association between the river level and the number of malaria attacks provides clues to better understand the environment of malaria transmission and the ecological characteristics of the vectors in the region.
The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Americas: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis.
Marianne E Sinka, Yasmin Rubio-Palis, Sylvie Manguin, Anand P Patil, Will H Temperley, Peter W Gething, Thomas Van Boeckel, Caroline W Kabaria, Ralph E Harbach, Simon I Hay
Spatial Ecology and Epidemiology Group, Tinbergen Building, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Linking deforestation to malaria in the Amazon: characterization of the breeding habitat of the principal malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi.
Amy Y Vittor, William Pan, Robert H Gilman, James Tielsch, Gregory Glass, Tim Shields, Wagner Sánchez-Lozano, Viviana V Pinedo, Erit Salas-Cobos, Silvia Flores, Jonathan A Patz
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
This study examined the larval breeding habitat of a major South American malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi, in areas with varying degrees of ecologic alteration in the Peruvian Amazon. Water bodies were repeatedly sampled across 112 km of transects along the Iquitos-Nauta road in ecologically varied areas. Field data and satellite imagery were used to determine the landscape composition surrounding each site. Seventeen species of Anopheles larvae were collected. Anopheles darlingi larvae were present in 87 of 844 sites (10.3%). Sites with A. darlingi larvae had an average of 24.1% forest cover, compared with 41.0% for sites without A. darlingi (P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis identified seasonality, algae, water body size, presence of human populations, and the amount of forest and secondary growth as significant determinants of A. darlingi presence. We conclude that deforestation and associated ecologic alterations are conducive to A. darlingi larval presence, and thereby increase malaria risk.
Department of Entomology, Center for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kilifi, Kenya. email@example.com
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES Changes in weather patterns especially rainfall affects the distribution and densities of mosquitoes. The objective of this study was to describe mosquito aquatic habitats, to determine larval abundance, species composition, and habitat types found in Kasayani village of Kibwezi division. METHODS A cross-sectional survey of mosquito larval habitats was conducted in Kasayani village in Kibwezi division to determine species composition, larval abundance, and habitat types found in this village. This survey was conducted during the rainy season in November and December 2006 and during the dry season in February and March 2007. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique and a total of 24 habitats were sampled. The primary habitats identified were water reservoir tanks, puddles, temporary pools, and tyre tracks. RESULTS A total of 2660 mosquito larvae were collected of which 2140 (80.45%) were culicines, 503 (18.91%) were Anopheles and 17 (0.64%) were pupae. For culicines, 1787 (83.5%) were categorized as early instars and 353 (16.5%) were as late instars while in the Anopheles, 425 (84.49%) were classified as early instars and 78 (15.51%) were late instars. Morphological identification of the III and IV instar larvae by use of microscopy yielded 16.24%(n = 70) Anopheles gambiae complex, 1.16%(n=5) An. funestus, 0.70%(n=3) An. coustani, 42.46%(n=183) Culex quinquefasciatus, 6.26%(n = 27) Cx. duttoni, and 33.18%(n=143) Ae. aegypti. Puddles, tyre tracks and pools had highly turbid water while water reservoir tanks had clear water. Anopheles gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus were found in all habitat categories while Ae. aegypti were found only in water storage tanks. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION The mosquito larval densities indicate that the inhabitants of this village are at risk of mosquito-borne diseases including malaria, which is one of the greatest causes of morbidity and mortality in this area. Furthermore, mosquito control measures targeting both the mosquito immatures and adults should be enhanced especially during the rainy season to ensure maximum protection of the inhabitants.
Seasonal distribution, biology, and human attraction patterns of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a rural village and adjacent forested site near Iquitos, Peru.
Michael J Turell, Michael R Sardelis, James W Jones, Douglas M Watts, Roberto Fernandez, Faustino Carbajal, James E Pecor, Terry A Klein
Virology Division, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
This study was conducted as part of a field-ecology study of arboviral and malarial activity in the Amazon Basin, Loreto Department, Peru, to determine the relative abundance, species diversity, and seasonal and vertical distributions of potential mosquito vectors. Mosquitoes were captured either by volunteers using mouth aspirators while mosquitoes attempted to land on the collectors or in dry ice-baited ABC light traps. Anopheles darlingi, the principal malaria vector in the region, was the most commonly captured anopheline mosquito in Puerto Almendra village (99%) while landing on humans, with a mean of 37.1 mosquitoes captured per 24-h period, representing nearly one half of all mosquitoes collected. An. darlingi human landing activity began shortly after sunset, peaked at 2000-2100 hours, and declined gradually until sunrise. This species readily entered houses, because 51% of the An. darlingi captured by paired collectors, stationed inside and outside houses, were captured indoors. Human landing collections provided a more accurate estimate of human attraction of An. darlingi, capturing 30 times as many as co-located dry ice-baited ABC light traps. In contrast, eight times as many Culex (Melanoconion) species, including known arbovirus vectors, were captured in light traps as by co-located human collectors. Despite being located within 300 m of the village collection site, only a few Anopheles species were captured at the forest collection site, including only 0.1 An darlingi/ 24 h, thus indicating that An. darlingi activity was directly associated with the rural village. These data provide a better understanding of the taxonomy, population density, and seasonal distribution of potential mosquito vectors of disease within the Amazon Basin region and allow for the development of appropriate vector and disease prevention strategies that target vector populations.
Contributions of Anopheles larval control to malaria suppression in tropical Africa: review of achievements and potential.
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA. email@example.com
Malaria vector control targeting the larval stages of mosquitoes was applied successfully against many species of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in malarious countries until the mid-20th Century. Since the introduction of DDT in the 1940s and the associated development of indoor residual spraying (IRS), which usually has a more powerful impact than larval control on vectorial capacity, the focus of malaria prevention programmes has shifted to the control of adult vectors. In the Afrotropical Region, where malaria is transmitted mainly by Anopheles funestus Giles and members of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex, gaps in information on larval ecology and the ability of An. gambiae sensu lato to exploit a wide variety of larval habitats have discouraged efforts to develop and implement larval control strategies. Opportunities to complement adulticiding with other components of integrated vector management, along with concerns about insecticide resistance, environmental impacts, rising costs of IRS and logistical constraints, have stimulated renewed interest in larval control of malaria vectors. Techniques include environmental management, involving the temporary or permanent removal of anopheline larval habitats, as well as larviciding with chemical or biological agents. This present review covers large-scale trials of anopheline larval control methods, focusing on field studies in Africa conducted within the past 15 years. Although such studies are limited in number and scope, their results suggest that targeting larvae, particularly in human-made habitats, can significantly reduce malaria transmission in appropriate settings. These approaches are especially suitable for urban areas, where larval habitats are limited, particularly when applied in conjunction with IRS and other adulticidal measures, such as the use of insecticide treated bednets.
Impact of deforestation and agricultural development on anopheline ecology and malaria epidemiology.
Department of Population and International Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
To clarify mechanisms linking deforestation, anopheline ecology, and malaria epidemiology, this study draws together 60 examples of changes in anopheline ecology and malaria incidence as a consequence of deforestation and agricultural development. The deforestation projects were classified based on subsequent land use and were reviewed in terms of their impact on anopheline density and malaria incidence. To further examine different anopheline responses to land transformation, two major ecological characteristics of 31 anopheline species were tested for their associations with changes in their densities and malaria incidence. Although niche width of anopheline species was not associated with density changes, sun preference was significantly associated with an increase in density. This study suggests the possibility of predicting potential impacts of future deforestation on vector density by using information on types of planned agricultural development and the ecology of local anopheline species.
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Division of Environmental Studies, University of California, Davis 95616, USA.
Northern Belize has extensive herbaceous wetlands. Those dominated by sparse emergent macrophytes, rushes (Eleocharis spp.) and sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense Crantz), often develop floating mats of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). These mats provide suitable habitat for larvae of the malaria transmitting mosquito Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann. Presence/absence of A. albimanus larvae and cyanobacterial mats was assessed in marshes located throughout northern Belize. Of the 21 marshes examined during the 1993 wet and 1994 dry seasons, cyanobacterial mats were found in 11 and A. albimanus larvae were detected in 9 of these 11 marshes. No A. albimanus larvae were found in marshes without cyanobacterial mats. Mosquito larvae were collected along two 1,000 m long transects in both the wet season (August 1993) and the dry season (March 1994) to delineate larval distribution in marshes with cyanobacterial mats. A. albimanus larval densities in cyanobacterial mats were relatively high in both seasons: 2.8 and 2.3 larvae per dip in the wet and dry seasons, respectively, in Chan Chen marsh; and 0.8 and 1.02 larvae per dip in Buena Vista marsh. Numbers of larvae per dip did not significantly change with increasing distance from houses/pastures or margins of the marsh. A field experiment showed a strong preference of ovipositing A. albimanus for cyanobacterial mats. Higher temperatures and higher CO2 emissions from cyanobacterial mats are possible ovipositional cues.
Plasmodium vivax polymorphs and Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite proteins in Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) from Belize, Central America.
N L Achee, C T Korves, M J Bangs, E Rejmankova, M Lege, D Curtin, H Lenares, Y Alonzo, R G Andre, D R Roberts
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814-4799, USA.
Eight species of Anopheles mosquitoes from indoor/outdoor human landing collections in Belize, Central America, were examined for human Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein (CSP) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 14 of 9,104 females tested were positive from general surveys throughout Belize and three of 11,966 were positive from a longitudinal study in Caledonia, northern Belize. ELISA results, using pooled head-thorax preparations and species-specific monoclonal antibodies directed against the circumsporozoite proteins of Plasmodium falciparum and two Plasmodium vivax polymorphs (210 and VK247), found four species reactive: Anopheles vestitipennis (3 pools), Anopheles darlingi (2 pools), Anopheles albimanus (10 pools), and Anopheles gabaldoni (2 pools). The minimum field infection rates (MFIR) for combined Plasmodium species from the general survey were 0.282% for An. vestitipennis, 0.271% for An. darlingi, 0.126% for An. albimanus, and 0.395% for An. gabaldoni. MFIRs for combined Plasmodium species from the longitudinal study in the village of Caledonia were 0.018% for both An. vestitipennis and An. albimanus and 1.66% for An. gabaldoni. Positive CSP pools were collected from the Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, and Toledo political districts. No CSP positive pools were detected from collections in the Belize District. The study provides valuable information on the spatial distribution and species type of Plasmodium positive mosquitoes. This information, in combination with other vector data, suggest that An. vestitipennis and An. darlingi are commonly involved in malaria transmission. Additionally, these species appear to be much more efficient vectors than An. albimanus in Belize.
Kasetsart University, Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Nakhon Prathom, Thailand.
The behavioral responses of 4 populations of Anopheles albimanus females to DDT, permethrin, and deltamethrin were characterized in excito-repellency tests. One test population (ST) from El Salvador has been maintained as a colony for 20 years. A second population (ES) from Guatemala was colonized in 1992. Third and fourth populations consisted of field-caught specimens from Toledo District (TO) of southern Belize in 1994 and Corozal District (CO) of northern Belize, respectively. Females of ES, TO, and CO populations rapidly escaped from direct contact with treated surfaces for each of the 3 insecticides. Similarities in escape responses of insecticide-resistant (ES) versus insecticide-susceptible populations (TO, CO) suggest that there is no relationship between physiological and behavioral responses of An. albimanus populations to DDT, permethrin, and deltamethrin. Females from all but the ST colony escaped in greater numbers from chambers without direct contact with treated surfaces than from control chambers (P < 0.05). Few females from the ST colony escaped from test chambers, regardless of which insecticide was used or whether contact was allowed, indicating that the ST colony has lost its capability to respond to insecticides. Repellent responses were significant; but they were not pronounced in 30-min exposures, and they were very pronounced in 4-h exposures. We conclude that irritant and repellent responses of malaria vectors to insecticides are important components of malaria control operations.
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS), Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Bethesda, MD 20814-4799, USA.
A survey of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis larval habitats was performed throughout most of its known geographic range. Eleven key environment variables characterized most larval habitats of this important vector of malaria in the Americas. Larval habitats occurred mainly in valley and foothill areas which were often situated in arid regions. Immatures were found primarily during the dry season in sun-exposed freshwater stream pools with clear, shallow, stagnant water containing abundant filamentous green algae and/or aquatic vegetation.
D R Roberts, J F Paris, S Manguin, R E Harbach, R Woodruff, E Rejmankova, J Polanco, B Wullschleger, L J Legters
USUHS, Bethesda, MD
Use of multispectral satellite data to predict arthropod-borne disease trouble spots is dependent on clear understandings of environmental factors that determine the presence of disease vectors. A blind test of remote sensing-based predictions for the spatial distribution of a malaria vector, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, was conducted as a follow-up to two years of studies on vector-environmental relationships in Belize. Four of eight sites that were predicted to be high probability locations for presence of An. pseudopunctipennis were positive and all low probability sites (0 of 12) were negative. The absence of An. pseudopunctipennis at four high probability locations probably reflects the low densities that seem to characterize field populations of this species, i.e., the population densities were below the threshold of our sampling effort. Another important malaria vector, An. darlingi, was also present at all high probability sites and absent at all low probability sites. Anopheles darlingi, like An. pseudopunctipennis, is a riverine species. Prior to these collections at ecologically defined locations, this species was last detected in Belize in 1946.
Department of Preventive Medicine/Biometrics, USUHS, Bethesda, MD 20814.
A survey for larval and adult Anopheles mosquitoes was conducted in Toledo District of southern Belize during August-September 1992. We surveyed for larvae in 145 habitats and conducted paired indoor-outdoor collections of adult mosquitoes landing on humans at 6 houses. In 1940-41, Kumm and Ram reported Anopheles darlingi females to be the most common Anopheles mosquitoes inside houses and reported no specimens of Anopheles vestitipennis in southern Belize. In our 1992 survey we found no An. darlingi mosquitoes either as adults or larvae. More An. vestitipennis females were captured indoors than outdoors, whereas most Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles apicimacula females were captured outdoors. All 3 species were represented occasionally in 145 collections of larvae from diverse habitats. Anopheles vestitipennis now appears to be a potentially important vector of malaria during the wet season in Toledo District.
Predictions of adult Anopheles albimanus densities in villages based on distances to remotely sensed larval habitats.
Division of Environmental Studies, University of California, Davis, USA.
Remote sensing is particularly helpful for assessing the location and extent of vegetation formations, such as herbaceous wetlands, that are difficult to examine on the ground. Marshes that are sparsely populated with emergent macrophytes and dense cyanobacterial mats have previously been identified as very productive Anopheles albimanus larval habitats. This type of habitat was detectable on a classified multispectral System Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre image of northern Belize as a mixture of two isoclasses. A similar spectral signature is characteristic for vegetation of river margins consisting of aquatic grasses and water hyacinth, which constitutes another productive larval habitat. Based on the distance between human settlements (sites) of various sizes and the nearest marsh/river exhibiting this particular class combination, we selected two groups of sites: those located closer than 500 m and those located more than 1,500 m from such habitats. Based on previous adult collections near larval habitats, we defined a landing rate of 0.5 mosquitoes/human/min from 6:30 PM to 8:00 PM as the threshold for high (> or = 0.5 mosquitoes/human/min) versus low (< 0.5 mosquitoes/human/min) densities of An. albimanus. Sites located less than 500 m from the habitat were predicted as having values higher than this threshold, while lower values were predicted for sites located greater than 1,500 m from the habitat. Predictions were verified by collections of mosquitoes landing on humans. The predictions were 100% accurate for sites in the > 1,500-m category and 89% accurate for sites in the < 500-m category.
Geo Eco Arc Research, La Canada, California 91011, USA.
Malaria, transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes, remains a serious health problem in the tropics. Most malaria eradication efforts focus on control of anopheline vectors. These efforts include the NASA Di-Mod project, whose current goal is to integrate remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), and field research to predict anopheline mosquito population dynamics in the Pacific coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. Field studies demonstrate that high larval production of Anopheles albimanus, the principal malaria vector in the plain, can be linked to a small number of larval habitat-types, determined by larval sampling and cluster analysis of wetlands in the coastal plain. Analysis of wet and dry season Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery identified 16 land cover units within an 185-km2 study area in the coastal zone. A hierarchical approach was used to link the larval habitat-types with the larger land cover units and make predictions of potential and actual low, medium, and high anopheline production. The TM-based map and GIS techniques were then used to predict differences in anopheline production at two villages, La Victoria and Efrain Gutierrez. La Victoria was predicted to have much higher Anopheles albimanus production, based upon a 2-10 times greater extent of medium- and high-producing land cover units in its vicinity. This difference between villages was independently supported by sampling (with light traps) of adults, which were 5-10 times more abundant in La Victoria.
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA. email@example.com
A comparison study of house entering and exiting behavior of Anopheles vestitipennis (Diptera: Culicidae) using experimental huts sprayed with DDT or deltamethrin in the southern district of Toledo, Belize, C.A.
Department of Preventive Medicine/Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.
An investigation of the house entering and exiting behavior of Anopheles vestitipennis Dyar and Knab was undertaken in the Toledo District of Belize, Central America, between March and December of 1998. Three untreated experimental huts were either fitted with exit or entrance interception traps or used as a control for human landing collections. Human landing collections showed that An. vestitipennis exhibited a high level of biting activity shortly after sunset and continued biting at high levels throughout the night. Under unsprayed conditions, the use of exit and entrance interception traps demonstrated that doors, windows, and eaves were the primary mode of entry; whereas, cracks in the walls served a secondary role. The peak entrance time for An. vestitipennis occurred between 6:45 P.M. and 9:45 P.M. and a peak exit time occurred between 11:45 P.M. and 4:45 A.M. Additional trials were conducted after spraying one of the huts with DDT and another with deltamethrin. The excito-repellent properties of deltamethrin did not affect entrance times but did result in a peak exiting behavior that was five hours earlier than under pre-spray conditions. Deltamethrin also exhibited a repellency effect, showing 66% fewer An. vestitipennis entering the hut two weeks post-spray. DDT had an even more powerful repellency effect resulting in a 97% post-spray reduction of An. vestitipennis females entering the hut up to two weeks post-spray. The control hut showed only a 37% reduction in An. vestitipennis as compared to pre-spray conditions.
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Department of Sanitary and Ecological Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Thákurova 7, Czech Republic, firstname.lastname@example.org Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, U.S.A. Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, U.S.A.
Larvae of the three important Central American malaria vectors, Anopheles albimanus, An. vestitipennis, and An. darlingi, are found in distinctly different habitats broadly defined by hydrology and aquatic vegetation, but little is known about the actual food quality and quantity of these habitats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are of special interest, because mosquitoes require 20:5ω3 (EPA), 20:4ω6 (ARA), and 22:6ω3 (DHA) and without an adequate supply of these PUFAs they are not able to complete their life cycle. We collected samples of larvae and their corresponding habitats and analyzed their fatty acid (FA) composition to reveal if there are any species-specific and habitat-specific differences in FA composition, and if habitat FA differences can be linked to differences in the mosquito FA pattern and, ultimately, mosquito performance. We also assessed how FA of wild larvae compare to the laboratory-reared larvae. Habitats were generally low in essential PUFAs and there were no significant differences among the FA composition of habitat samples. There were significant differences in FA composition of larvae. An. darlingi contained significantly higher amounts of FA, specifically a higher content of ω-6 PUFA, represented mainly by the linoleic acid (18:2ω-6). Large differences were found between field-collected and laboratory-reared An. vestitipennis larvae, especially in the content of PUFAs. The laboratory-reared larvae contained significantly more of the total FA, ω3 PUFA, and MUFA. The laboratory-reared larvae contained three to five times more essential PUFAs, EPA, and DHA. However, there were no differences in the total dry weight of the 4(th) instar larvae between the wild vs laboratory-reared larvae. Total FA in both larvae and habitats of An. albimanus and An. darlingi were positively correlated with the concentration of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC, PON) in their respective habitats, but no such correlation was found for An. vestitipennis. PUFA are a good indicator of nutritional quality, although factors controlling the success of anopheline development from larval habitats are likely to be more complex and would include the presence of predators, pathogens, and toxins as interacting factors.
Front Physiol. 2012 ;3 :59 22454623
Larval Habitat Associations with Human Land Uses, Roads, Rivers, and Land Cover for Anopheles albimanus, A. pseudopunctipennis, and A. punctimacula (Diptera: Culicidae) in Coastal and Highland Ecuador.
Vector-Borne Diseases Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University St. Catharines, ON, Canada.
Larval habitat for three highland Anopheles species: Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald, and Anopheles punctimacula Dyar and Knab was related to human land uses, rivers, roads, and remotely sensed land cover classifications in the western Ecuadorian Andes. Of the five commonly observed human land uses, cattle pasture (n = 30) provided potentially suitable habitat for A. punctimacula and A. albimanus in less than 14% of sites, and was related in a principal components analysis (PCA) to the presence of macrophyte vegetation, greater surface area, clarity, and algae cover. Empty lots (n = 30) were related in the PCA to incident sunlight and provided potential habitat for A. pseudopunctipennis and A. albimanus in less than 14% of sites. The other land uses surveyed (banana, sugarcane, and mixed tree plantations; n = 28, 21, 25, respectively) provided very little standing water that could potentially be used for larval habitat. River edges and eddies (n = 41) were associated with greater clarity, depth, temperature, and algae cover, which provide potentially suitable habitat for A. albimanus in 58% of sites and A. pseudopunctipennis in 29% of sites. Road-associated water bodies (n = 38) provided potential habitat for A. punctimacula in 44% of sites and A. albimanus in 26% of sites surveyed. Species collection localities were compared to land cover classifications using Geographic Information Systems software. All three mosquito species were associated more often with the category "closed/open broadleaved evergreen and/or semi-deciduous forests" than expected (P ≤ 0.01 in all cases), given such a habitat's abundance. This study provides evidence that specific human land uses create habitat for potential malaria vectors in highland regions of the Andes.
Spatial clustering and longitudinal variation of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in a river of the Amazon: the importance of the forest fringe and of obstructions to flow in frontier malaria.
Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife-PE, Brazil. email@example.com
Deforestation has been linked to a rise in malaria prevalence. In this paper, we studied longitudinally 20 spots, including forested and deforested portions of a temporary river in a malarigenous frontier zone. Larval habitat parameters influencing distribution of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae were studied. We observed that larvae were clustered in forested-deforested transitions. For the first time in the literature, it was verified that parameters determining larval distribution varied from deforested to forested areas. The proximity to human dwellings was also a significant factor determining distribution, but larvae was most importantly associated with a previously undescribed parameter, the presence of small obstructions to river flow, such as tree trunks within the river channel, which caused pooling of water during the dry season ('microdams'). In deforested areas, the most important factor determining distribution of larvae was shade (reduced luminance). Larvae were absent in the entire studied area during the wet season and present in most sites during the dry season. During the wet-dry transition, larvae were found sooner in areas with microdams, than in other areas, suggesting that flow obstruction prolongs the breeding season of An. darlingi. Adult mosquito densities and malaria incidence were higher during the dry season. Our data correlate well with the published literature, including the distribution of malaria cases near the forest fringes, and has permitted the creation of a model of An. darlingi breeding, where preference for sites with reduced luminance, human presence and microdams would interact to determine larval distribution.
Habitat characterization and mapping of Anopheles maculatus (Theobald) mosquito larvae in malaria endemic areas in Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia.
Medical Entomology Unit, Infectious Disease Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. firstname.lastname@example.org
In Peninsular Malaysia, a large proportion of malaria cases occur in the central mountainous and forested parts of the country. As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, we conducted entomological surveys to determine the type of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats of the vector Anopheles maculatus in malaria endemic areas in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus mosquitoes were collected from 49 breeding sites in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus preferred to breed in water pockets formed on the bank of rivers and waterfalls. The most common larval habitats were shallow pools 5.0-15.0 cm deep with clear water, mud substrate and plants or floatage. The mosquito also preferred open or partially shaded habitats. Breeding habitats were generally located at 100-400 m from the nearest human settlement. Changes in breeding characteristics were also observed. Instead of breeding in slow flowing streams, most larvae bred in small water pockets along the river margin.
Mycologia. ;102 (2):347-62 20361502
Instituto de Limnología Dr. Raúl A. Ringuelet-CCT-La Plata-CONICET/UNLP, Florencio Varela (1888), Km 23.5, Buenos Aires, Argentina. email@example.com
Trichomycetes, mainly from nonbiting midge (Chironomidae), mosquito (Culicidae) and black fly (Simuliidae) larvae (Insecta: Diptera), are reported from diverse freshwater environments principally from previously unexplored areas of Argentina. Four new species of Harpellales are described: Austrosmittium patagonicum, A. lenticum, Smittium basiramosum and Legeriomyces lichtwardtii. This is the first report of Austrosmittium spp. from the Americas and the first report of a Legeriomyces from South America. Two other species (Simuliomyces sp. and Harpella sp.) are described but not named. Fourteen previously described species were recovered, and their geographical distribution and host ranges have been extended for Argentina, with Sm. phytotelmatum, Stachylina lentica, St. lotica and St. penetralis being new records for the country.
Species composition, larval habitats, seasonal occurrence and distribution of potential malaria vectors and associated species of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Republic of Korea.
Leopoldo M Rueda, Tracy L Brown, Heung-Chul Kim, Sung-Tae Chong, Terry A Klein, Desmond H Foley, Assaf Anyamba, Matthew Smith, Edwin P Pak, Richard C Wilkerson
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Larval mosquito habitats of potential malaria vectors and related species of Anopheles from three provinces (Gyeonggi, Gyeongsangbuk, Chungcheongbuk Provinces) of the Republic of Korea were surveyed in 2007. This study aimed to determine the species composition, seasonal occurrence and distributions of Anopheles mosquitoes. Satellite derived normalized difference vegetation index data (NDVI) was also used to study the seasonal abundance patterns of Anopheles mosquitoes. METHODS: Mosquito larvae from various habitats were collected using a standard larval dipper or a white plastic larval tray, placed in plastic bags, and were preserved in 100% ethyl alcohol for species identification by PCR and DNA sequencing. The habitats in the monthly larval surveys included artificial containers, ground depressions, irrigation ditches, drainage ditches, ground pools, ponds, rice paddies, stream margins, inlets and pools, swamps, and uncultivated fields. All field-collected specimens were identified to species, and relationships among habitats and locations based on species composition were determined using cluster statistical analysis. RESULTS: In about 10,000 specimens collected, eight species of Anopheles belonging to three groups were identified: Hyrcanus Group - Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles kleini, Anopheles belenrae, Anopheles pullus, Anopheles lesteri, Anopheles sineroides; Barbirostris Group - Anopheles koreicus; and Lindesayi Group - Anopheles lindesayi japonicus. Only An. sinensis was collected from all habitats groups, while An. kleini, An. pullus and An. sineroides were sampled from all, except artificial containers. The highest number of Anopheles larvae was found in the rice paddies (34.8%), followed by irrigation ditches (23.4%), ponds (17.0%), and stream margins, inlets and pools (12.0%). Anopheles sinensis was the dominant species, followed by An. kleini, An. pullus and An. sineroides. The monthly abundance data of the Anopheles species from three locations (Munsan, Jinbo and Hayang) were compared against NDVI and NDVI anomalies. CONCLUSION: The species composition of Anopheles larvae varied in different habitats at various locations. Anopheles populations fluctuated with the seasonal dynamics of vegetation for 2007. Multi-year data of mosquito collections are required to provide a better characterization of the abundance of these insects from year to year, which can potentially provide predictive capability of their population density based on remotely sensed ecological measurements.
Distribution and larval habitat characterization of Anopheles moucheti, Anopheles nili, and other malaria vectors in river networks of southern Cameroon.
Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio, Cyrille Ndo, Carlo Costantini, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Didier Fontenille, Frédéric Simard
Laboratoire de Recherche sur le Paludisme, Organisation de Coordination pour la lutte Contre les Endémies en Afrique Centrale (OCEAC), P.O. Box 288, Yaoundé, Cameroon. antonio firstname.lastname@example.org
Despite their importance as malaria vectors, little is known of the bionomic of Anopheles nili and Anopheles moucheti. Larval collections from 24 sites situated along the dense hydrographic network of south Cameroon were examined to assess key ecological factors associated with these mosquitoes distribution in river networks. Morphological identification of the III and IV instar larvae by the use of microscopy revealed that 47.6% of the larvae belong to An. nili and 22.6% to An. moucheti. Five variables were significantly involved with species distribution, the pace of flow of the river (lotic, or lentic), the light exposure (sunny or shady), vegetation (presence or absence of vegetation) the temperature and the presence or absence of debris. Using canonical correspondence analysis, it appeared that lotic rivers, exposed to light, with vegetation or debris were the best predictors of An. nili larval abundance. Whereas, An. moucheti and An. ovengensis were highly associated with lentic rivers, low temperature, having Pistia. An. nili and An. moucheti distribution along river systems across south Cameroon was highly correlated with environmental variables. The distribution of An. nili conforms to that of a generalist species which is adapted to exploiting a variety of environmental conditions, Whereas, An. moucheti, Anopheles ovengensis and Anopheles carnevalei appeared as specialist forest mosquitoes.
A supervised land cover classification of a western Kenya lowland endemic for human malaria: associations of land cover with larval Anopheles habitats.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya. email@example.com
BACKGROUND A supervised land cover classification was developed from very high resolution IKONOS satellite data and extensive ground truth sampling of a ca. 10 sq km malaria-endemic lowland in western Kenya. The classification was then applied to an investigation of distribution of larval Anopheles habitats. The hypothesis was that the distribution and abundance of aquatic habitats of larvae of various species of mosquitoes in the genus Anopheles is associated with identifiable landscape features. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The classification resulted in 7 distinguishable land cover types, each with a distinguishable vegetation pattern, was highly accurate (89%, Kappa statistic = 0.86), and had a low rate of omission and commission errors. A total of 1,198 habitats and 19,776 Anopheles larvae of 9 species were quantified in samples from a rainy season, and 184 habitats and 582 larvae from a dry season. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the dominant species complex (51% of total) and A. arabiensis the dominant species. Agricultural land covers (mature maize fields, newly cultivated fields, and pastured grasslands) were positively associated with presence of larval habitats, and were located relatively close to stream channels; whilst nonagricultural land covers (short shrubs, medium shrubs, tall shrubs, and bare soil around residences) were negatively associated with presence of larval habitats and were more distant from stream channels. Number of larval habitats declined exponentially with distance from streams. IKONOS imagery was not useful in direct detection of larval habitats because they were small and turbid (resembling bare soil), but was useful in localization of them through statistical associations with specific land covers. CONCLUSION A supervised classification of land cover types in rural, lowland, western Kenya revealed a largely human-modified and fragmented landscape consisting of agricultural and domestic land uses. Within it, larval habitats of Anopheles vectors of human malaria were associated with certain land cover types, of largely agricultural origin, and close to streams. Knowledge of these associations can inform malaria control to gather information on potential larval habitats more efficiently than by field survey and can do so over large areas.
Disease Control & Vector Biology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Ideally larval control activities should be targeted at sites that generate the most adult vectors, thereby reducing operational costs. Despite the plethora of potential mosquito breeding sites found in the floodplains of the Gambia River, about 150 km from its mouth, during the rainy season, only a small proportion are colonized by anophelines on any day. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of larval habitats most frequently and most densely populated by anopheline larvae and to estimate the numbers of adults produced in different habitats. METHODS A case-control design was used to identify characteristics of sites with or without mosquitoes. Sites were surveyed for their physical water properties and invertebrate fauna. The characteristics of 83 sites with anopheline larvae (cases) and 75 sites without (controls) were collected between June and November 2005. Weekly adult productivity was estimated with emergence traps in water-bodies commonly containing larvae. RESULTS The presence of anopheline larvae was associated with high invertebrate diversity (Odds Ratio, OR 11.69, 95% CI 5.61-24.34, p < 0.001), the presence of emergent vegetation (OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.35-5.95, p = 0.006), and algae (at borderline significance; OR 1.87, 95% CI 0.96-3.618, p = 0.065). The density of larvae was reduced in sites that were larger than 100 m in perimeter (OR 0.151; 95% CI 0.060-0.381, p < 0.001), where water was tidal (OR 0.232; 95% CI 0.101-0.533, p = 0.001), vegetation shaded over 25% of the habitat (OR 0.352; 95% CI 0.136-0.911, p = 0.031) and water conductivity was above 2,000 muS/cm (OR 0.458; 95% CI 0.220-0.990, p = 0.048). Pools produced the highest numbers of Anopheles gambiae adults compared with rice fields, floodwater areas close to the edge of the floodplain or close to the river, and stream fringes. Pools were characterized by high water temperature and turbidity, low conductivity, increased presence of algae, and absence of tidal water. CONCLUSION There are few breeding sites that produce a high number of adult vectors in the middle reaches of the river in The Gambia, whereas those with low productivity are larger in area and can be found throughout the rainy season. Even though risk factors could be identified for the presence and density of larvae and productivity of habitats, the results indicate that anti-larval interventions in this area of The Gambia cannot be targeted in space or time during the rainy season.
Spatiotemporal dynamics of immature culicines (subfamily Culicinae) and their larval habitats in Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya.
Ephantus J Muturi, Joseph M Mwangangi, Benjamin G Jacob, Josephat I Shililu, Charles M Mbogo, John I Githure, Robert J Novak
Department of Medicine, William C. Gorgas Center for Geographic Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 206-C BBRB, 845 19th Street South, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. email@example.com
An ecological study was conducted at three study sites in Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya to identify the diverse aquatic habitats in which culicine mosquitoes thrived and to explore the best strategies for mosquito control in the area. During the 11-month study period, ten habitat categories and 11 culicine species mainly dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (72.0%) and Culex annulioris (17.9%) were identified from pupae and late instars larval samples. Two of the 11 culicine species, Ficalbia (Mimomyia) plumosa and Uranotaenia spp., have not been reported previously in the study area. Rurumi had more habitat types than either of the other study sites but the least number of mosquito species. In contrast, Karima had the least number of habitat types but significantly higher density of early instars than the other study sites. The relative abundance of late instars and pupae did not vary significantly among study sites. The contribution of different habitat types to larval production varied markedly between seasons and among study sites. Paddies and canals were perennial contributors of culicine mosquito larvae while the other habitat types were important mainly during the wet season. Some habitat types such as ditches, seeps, marshes, and fishpond were absent in some study sites but of great significance in other study sites. C. quinquefasciatus was positively associated with turbidity at all study sites and also negatively associated with emergent vegetation and distance to the nearest homestead in Karima, emergent vegetation in Kiuria, and other aquatic invertebrates in Rurumi. C. annulioris was positively associated with emergent vegetation at all study sites and also with depth in Kiuria. These findings indicate that besides rice fields and associated habitats, a diversity of other aquatic habitats contribute to culicine adult mosquito production in the study area and that environmental factors that determine the occurrence of a particular mosquito species may vary significantly even among areas of similar land use. This information is critical when designing and implementing mosquito larval control programs.