Lactacystin and clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone modify multiple proteasome beta-subunits and inhibit intracellular protein degradation and major histocompatibility complex class I antigen presentation.
Division of Lymphocyte Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
The antibiotic lactacystin was reported to covalently modify beta-subunit X of the mammalian 20 S proteasome and inhibit several of its peptidase activities. However, we demonstrate that [3H]lactacystin treatment modifies all the proteasome's catalytic beta-subunits. Lactacystin and its more potent derivative beta-lactone irreversibly inhibit protein breakdown and the chymotryptic, tryptic, and peptidylglutamyl activities of purified 20 S and 26 S particles, although at different rates. Exposure to these agents for 1 to 2 h reduced the degradation of short- and long-lived proteins in four different mammalian cell lines. Unlike peptide aldehyde inhibitors, lactacystin and the beta-lactone do not inhibit lysosomal degradation of an endocytosed protein. These agents block class I antigen presentation of a model protein, ovalbumin (synthesized endogenously or loaded exogenously), but do not affect presentation of the peptide epitope SIINFEKL, which does not require proteolysis for presentation. Generation of most peptides required for formation of stable class I heterodimers is also inhibited. Because these agents inhibited protein breakdown and antigen presentation similarly in interferon-gamma-treated cells (where proteasomes contain LMP2 and LMP7 subunits in place of X and Y), all beta-subunits must be affected similarly. These findings confirm our prior conclusions that proteasomes catalyze the bulk of protein breakdown in mammalian cells and generate the majority of class I-bound epitopes for immune recognition.
J Virol. 2011 Nov ;85 (22):11964-71 21900156
Departamento de Genética del Desarrollo y Fisiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnología, UNAM, Avenida Universidad 2001, Colonia Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62210, Mexico. email@example.com
Here we show that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is required for the efficient replication of rotavirus RRV in MA104 cells. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 decreased the yield of infectious virus under conditions where it severely reduces the synthesis of not only viral but also cellular proteins. Addition of nonessential amino acids to the cell medium restored both viral protein synthesis and cellular protein synthesis, but the production of progeny viruses was still inhibited. In medium supplemented with nonessential amino acids, we showed that MG132 does not affect rotavirus entry but inhibits the replication of the viral genome. It was also shown that it prevents the efficient incorporation into viroplasms of viral polymerase VP1 and the capsid proteins VP2 and VP6, which could explain the inhibitory effect of MG132 on genome replication and infectious virus yield. We also showed that ubiquitination is relevant for rotavirus replication since the yield of rotavirus progeny in cells carrying a temperature-sensitive mutation in the E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme was reduced at the restrictive temperature. In addition, overexpression of ubiquitin in MG132-treated MA104 cells partially reversed the effect of the inhibitor on virus yield. Altogether, these data suggest that the ubiquitin-proteasome (UP) system has a very complex interaction with the rotavirus life cycle, with both the ubiquitination and proteolytic activities of the system being relevant for virus replication.
Mina-Olga Aletrari, Craig McKibbin, Helen Williams, Vidya Pawar, Paola Pietroni, J Michael Lord, Sabine L Flitsch, Roger Whitehead, Eileithyia Swanton, Stephen High, Robert A Spooner
School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom.
The small molecule Eeyarestatin I (ESI) inhibits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-cytosol dislocation and subsequent degradation of ERAD (ER associated protein degradation) substrates. Toxins such as ricin and Shiga/Shiga-like toxins (SLTx) are endocytosed and trafficked to the ER. Their catalytic subunits are thought to utilise ERAD-like mechanisms to dislocate from the ER into the cytosol, where a proportion uncouples from the ERAD process, recovers a catalytic conformation and destroys their cellular targets. We therefore investigated ESI as a potential inhibitor of toxin dislocation. Using cytotoxicity measurements, we found no role for ES(I) as an inhibitor of toxin dislocation from the ER, but instead found that for SLTx, ESI treatment of cells was protective by reducing the rate of toxin delivery to the ER. Microscopy of the trafficking of labelled SLTx and its B chain (lacking the toxic A chain) showed a delay in its accumulation at a peri-nuclear location, confirmed to be the Golgi by examination of SLTx B chain metabolically labelled in the trans-Golgi cisternae. The drug also reduced the rate of endosomal trafficking of diphtheria toxin, which enters the cytosol from acidified endosomes, and delayed the Golgi-specific glycan modifications and eventual plasma membrane appearance of tsO45 VSV-G protein, a classical marker for anterograde trafficking. ESI acts on one or more components that function during vesicular transport, whilst at least one retrograde trafficking pathway, that of ricin, remains unperturbed.
Institute of Protein Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia. firstname.lastname@example.org
In eukaryotic cells, degradation of most intracellular proteins is realized by proteasomes. The substrates for proteolysis are selected by the fact that the gate to the proteolytic chamber of the proteasome is usually closed, and only proteins carrying a special "label" can get into it. A polyubiquitin chain plays the role of the "label": degradation affects proteins conjugated with a ubiquitin (Ub) chain that consists at minimum of four molecules. Upon entering the proteasome channel, the polypeptide chain of the protein unfolds and stretches along it, being hydrolyzed to short peptides. Ubiquitin per se does not get into the proteasome, but, after destruction of the "labeled" molecule, it is released and labels another molecule. This process has been named "Ub-dependent protein degradation". In this review we systematize current data on the Ub-proteasome system, describe in detail proteasome structure, the ubiquitination system, and the classical ATP/Ub-dependent mechanism of protein degradation, as well as try to focus readers' attention on the existence of alternative mechanisms of proteasomal degradation and processing of proteins. Data on damages of the proteasome system that lead to the development of different diseases are given separately.
Neural-specific deletion of FIP200 leads to cerebellar degeneration caused by increased neuronal death and axon degeneration.
Division of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.
FIP200 (FAK family-interacting protein of 200 kDa) is a conserved protein recently identified as a potential mammalian counterpart of yeast autophagy protein Atg17. However, it remains unknown whether mammalian FIP200 regulates autophagy in vivo. Here we show that neural-specific deletion of FIP200 resulted in cerebellar degeneration accompanied by progressive neuronal loss, spongiosis, and neurite degeneration in the cerebellum. Furthermore, deletion of FIP200 led to increased apoptosis in cerebellum as well as accumulation of ubiquitinated protein aggregates without any deficiency in proteasome catalytic functions. We also observed an increased p62/SQSTM1 accumulation in the cerebellum and reduced autophagosome formation as well as accumulation of damaged mitochondria in the mutant mice. Lastly, analysis of cerebellar neurons in vitro showed reduced JNK activation and increased susceptibility to serum deprivation-induced apoptosis in cerebellar neurons from the mutant mice. Taken together, these results provide strong genetic evidence for a role of FIP200 in the regulation of neuronal homeostasis through its function in autophagy in vivo.
Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, 185 South Orange Avenue, MSB G-609, Newark, NJ 07103, USA.
Activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system has been described in different models of cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac cell growth in response to pressure or volume overload, as well as physiological adaptive hypertrophy, is accompanied by an increase in protein ubiquitination, proteasome subunit expression, and proteasome activity. Importantly, an inhibition of proteasome activity prevents and reverses cardiac hypertrophy and remodelling in vivo. The focus of this review is to provide an update about the mechanisms by which proteasome inhibitors affect cardiac cell growth in adaptive and maladaptive models of cardiac hypertrophy. In the first part, we summarize how the proteasome affects both proteolysis and protein synthesis in a context of cardiac cell growth. In the second part, we show how proteasome inhibition can prevent and reverse cardiac hypertrophy and remodelling in response to different conditions of overload.
Department of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-9040, USA.
The 26S proteasome is a 2500 kDa protease complex that degrades polyubiquitylated proteins by a mechanism that requires ATP hydrolysis. It also degrades short non-ubiquitylated peptides and certain unstructured proteins by an energy-independent mechanism that requires bound ATP to maintain its component subcomplexes, the 20S proteasome and PA700, in a functionally assembled state. Proteolysis of both types of substrate requires PA700-induced opening of reversible gates at substrate-access pores of the 20S proteasome. In the present study we demonstrate that the rate of peptide substrate hydrolysis, a functional monitor of gate opening, is regulated variably by multiple effectors. ATPgammaS (adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate) and other non-hydrolysable ATP analogues increased peptide substrate hydrolysis by intact 26S proteasomes. Thus nucleotides that maintained 26S proteasome structure, but did not support ATP hydrolysis or the degradation of polyubiquitylated proteins, promoted enhanced rates of peptide hydrolysis. Polyubiquitin and a peptoid that binds selectively to a single ATPase subunit of PA700 also increased rates of peptide hydrolysis but had disparate effects on rates of ATP hydrolysis. The effect of polyubiquitin was specific for ubiquitin-ubiquitin linkages that supported proteolysis of protein substrates. These results indicate that gating of the 26S proteasome is not a simple two-state process but can be variably modulated. Our results suggest that modulated gating of the proteasome may be an important element of the mechanism of proteolysis of polyubiquitylated proteins.
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) F protein is encoded by the +1 reading frame of the viral genome. It overlaps with the core protein coding sequence, and multiple mechanisms for its expression have been proposed. The full-length F protein that is synthesized by translational ribosomal frameshift at codons 9 to 11 of the core protein sequence is a labile protein. By using a combination of genetic, biochemical, and cell biological approaches, we demonstrate that this HCV F protein can bind to the proteasome subunit protein alpha3, which reduces the F-protein level in cells in a dose-dependent manner. Deletion-mapping analysis identified amino acids 40 to 60 of the F protein as the alpha3-binding domain. This alpha3-binding domain of the F protein together with its upstream sequence could significantly destabilize the green fluorescent protein, an otherwise stable protein. Further analyses using an F-protein mutant lacking lysine and a cell line that contained a temperature-sensitive E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme indicated that the degradation of the F protein was ubiquitin independent. Based on these observations as well as the observation that the F protein could be degraded directly by the 20S proteasome in vitro, we propose that the full-length HCV F protein as well as the F protein initiating from codon 26 is degraded by an ubiquitin-independent pathway that is mediated by the proteasome subunit alpha3. The ability of the F protein to bind to alpha3 raises the possibility that the HCV F protein may regulate protein degradation in cells.
3D-QSAR studies of boron-containing dipeptides as proteasome inhibitors with CoMFA and CoMSIA methods.
Jiangsu Simcere Pharmaceutical Research Institute, No. 699-18 Xuan Wu Avenue, Xuan Wu District, Nanjing 210042, PR China. email@example.com
Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies were performed for a series of dipeptide boronate proteasome inhibitors using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) techniques. A training set containing 46 molecules served to establish the models. The optimum CoMFA and CoMSIA models obtained for the training set were all statistically significant with cross-validated coefficients (q(2)) of 0.676 and 0.630 and conventional coefficients (r(2)) of 0.989 and 0.956, respectively. The predictive capacities of both models were successfully validated by calculating a test set of 13 molecules that were not included in the training set. The predicted correlation coefficients (r(2)(pred)) of CoMFA and CoMSIA are 0.963 and 0.919, respectively. The CoMFA and CoMSIA field contour maps agree well with the structural characteristics of the binding pocket of beta5 subunit of 20S proteasome, which suggests that the 3D-QSAR models constructed in this paper can be used to guide the development of novel dipeptide boronate inhibitors of 20S proteasome.
Relevance of viral context and diversity of antigen-processing routes for respiratory syncytial virus cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes.
Carolina Johnstone, Sara Guil, Miguel A Rico, Blanca García-Barreno, Daniel López, José A Melero, Margarita Del Val
Unidad de Inmunología Viral, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ctra. Pozuelo km 2, E-28220 Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.
Antigen processing of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) protein epitopes F85-93 and F249-258 presented to cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) by the murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule K(d) was studied in different viral contexts. Epitope F85-93 was presented through a classical endogenous pathway dependent on the transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP) when the F protein was expressed from either RSV or recombinant vaccinia virus (rVACV). At least in cells infected with rVACV encoding either natural or cytosolic F protein, the proteasome was required for epitope processing. In cells infected with rVACV encoding the natural F protein, an additional endogenous TAP-independent presentation pathway was found for F85-93. In contrast, epitope F249-258 was presented only through TAP-independent pathways, but presentation was brefeldin A sensitive when the F protein was expressed from RSV, or mostly resistant when expressed from rVACV. Therefore, antigen-processing pathways with different mechanisms and subcellular localizations are accessible to individual epitopes presented by the same MHC class I molecule and processed from the same protein but in different viral contexts. This underscores both the diversity of pathways available and the influence of virus infection on presentation of epitopes to CTLs.
Other papers by authors:
Two distinct proteolytic processes in the generation of a major histocompatibility complex class I-presented peptide.
Division of Lymphocyte Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Although cellular proteins degraded by proteasomes are the source of most antigenic peptides presented on major histocompatibility complex class I molecules, it is unknown whether the eight- to nine-residue peptides that fit in the binding groove of class I molecules are directly produced by proteasomes alone in vivo. If the eight-residue peptide SIINFEKL from chicken ovalbumin is extended by one or several residues at its C terminus and microinjected into cells or expressed from a minigene, it is processed and presented on major histocompatibility complex class I. However, processing and presentation are inhibited by proteasome inhibitors, such as lactacystin. In contrast, when SIINFEKL is extended by 2 to 25 residues at its N terminus, its presentation is not blocked by proteasome inhibitors. N-terminal processing also can occur when the extended peptide is cotranslationally inserted into the endoplasmic reticulum. Thus, two different proteolytic steps in the generation of an chicken ovalbumin-presented peptide can be distinguished. Cleavage by the proteasome defines the proper C terminus, whereas distinct peptidase(s) in the cytosol or endoplasmic reticulum may generate the appropriate N terminus from extended peptides.
Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
Proteasome subunits X and Y alter peptidase activities in opposite ways to the interferon-gamma-induced subunits LMP2 and LMP7.
Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
Most antigenic peptides presented on major histocompatibility complex class I molecules are generated by proteasomes. Interferon-gamma, which stimulates antigen presentation, induces new proteasome beta-subunits LMP2 and LMP7, which replace the homologous beta-subunits Y (delta) and X (epsilon). As a result, the capacity of the proteasome to cleave model peptides increases after hydrophobic and basic residues and falls after acidic residues. To clarify the function of these subunits, we examined the effects of overexpressing subunits X (delta) and Y (epsilon). Transfection of the Y gene into HeLa cells stimulated the proteasomal cleavage after acidic residues without altering other peptidase activities. This effect was proportional to the amount of the Y subunits and opposite to the effect of its homolog, LMP2. Y appears to promote cleavages after acidic residues. Furthermore, in mutants lacking the LMP genes (in contrast to wild-type cells), interferon-gamma treatment increased the proteasome content of Y subunits and enhanced postacidic cleavages. Transfection with cDNA for the X subunit reduced hydrolysis after hydrophobic and basic residues, an effect opposite to transfection of LMP2 and LMP7. Surprisingly, transfection of X increased the amounts not only of X, but also of Y, while decreasing LMP2 content. Thus, the loss of the Y subunit upon interferon-gamma treatment or LMP2 transfection accounts for the suppression of postacidic cleavages, and the loss of X contributes to the increased hydrolysis after hydrophobic and basic residues. These adaptations should favor the production of the kinds of peptides that are presented on major histocompatibility complex class I molecules.
Harvard Medical School, Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.
The presentation of intracellular proteins to the immune system requires their degradation to small peptides that then become associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. The generation of these peptides may involve the 20S or 26S proteasome particles, which contain multiple proteolytic activities including distinct sites that preferentially cleave small peptides on the carboxyl side of hydrophobic, basic or acidic residues. Degradation of most cell proteins requires their conjugation to ubiquitin before hydrolysis by the 26S proteasome. This large complex contains the 20S proteasome as its proteolytic core. This ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway is implicated in MHC class I presentation. gamma-Interferon (gamma-IFN), a stimulator of antigen presentation, induces a subclass of proteasomes that contain two MHC-encoded subunits, LMP2 and 7 (refs 5-10). Here we show that gamma-interferon alters the peptidase activities of the 20S and 26S proteasomes without affecting the rates of breakdown of proteins or of ubiquitinated proteins. By enhancing the expression of MHC genes, gamma-IFN increases the proteasomes' capacity to cleave small peptides after hydrophobic and basic residues but reduces cleavage after acidic residues. Moreover, proteasomes of mutants lacking LMP subunits show decreased rates of cleavage after hydrophobic and basic residues. Thus, gamma-IFN and expression of these MHC genes should favour the production by proteasomes of the types of peptides found on MHC class I molecules, which terminate almost exclusively with hydrophobic or basic residues.
Peptidase activities of proteasomes are differentially regulated by the major histocompatibility complex-encoded genes for LMP2 and LMP7.
Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115.
Recent studies have implicated proteasomes in the generation of the antigenic peptides that are presented on major histocompatibility complex class I molecules to T lymphocytes. Interferon gamma modifies the subunit composition of proteasomes and causes changes in their peptidase activities that should favor the production of peptides with hydrophobic or basic carboxyl termini (i.e., the types found on major histocompatibility complex class I molecules). It has been proposed that these changes in peptidase activity are due to incorporation into proteasomes of the major histocompatibility complex-encoded subunits LMP2 and -7, which are induced by interferon gamma. Here we show by gene transfection into lymphoblasts or HeLa cells that LMP7 increases the capacity (Vmax) of 20S and 26S proteasomes to cleave peptides after hydrophobic and basic residues without affecting hydrolysis after acidic residues. These changes depended on the amount of LMP7 subunits incorporated into proteasomes. Transfection of LMP2 reduced cleavage of peptides after acidic residues, increased hydrolysis after basic residues, and did not affect the hydrophobic activity. Since the activity of the total proteasome population changed after incorporation of only small amounts of LMP2 or -7, these subunits must cause major alterations in peptidase activity. Thus, their expression can account for the changes in proteasome activity induced by inteferon gamma, and these findings lend further support to the proposed roles of LMPs in altering the nature of the peptides generated for antigen presentation.
Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115.
Recent studies have demonstrated that the proteasome, in addition to functioning in the complete degradation of cell proteins, is the source of most antigenic peptides presented to the immune system on major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-class I molecules. In this process, intracellular and viral proteins are degraded in the cytosol to 8- to 9-amino acid fragments, which are then transported into the endoplasmic reticulum, where they become associated with MHC-class I molecules and are thus delivered to the cell surface. A variety of evidence has shown that the proteasome and ATP-ubiquitin-dependent pathway are critical in this process:(1) In cells, selective inhibitors of proteasome function inhibit the bulk of protein degradation and thus prevent the generation of peptides necessary for class I presentation and the appearance of MHC on the cell surface.(2) Mutations that block ubiquitin conjugation prevent the generation of an antigenic peptide.(3) Modifications that lead to rapid degradation of a protein by the ubiquitin pathway enhance antigen presentation.(4) gamma-Interferon (gamma-IFN) induces new proteasome subunits, LMP2 and LMP7, encoded in the MHC region that are incorporated in place of constitutive proteasome subunits. Their incorporation does not affect rates of protein breakdown but causes changes in peptidase activities, i.e. they increase rates of cleavage after basic and hydrophobic residues and decrease cleavage after acidic residues. Transfections of cells with LMP2 or LMP7 cause similar changes in these peptidase activities as are caused by gamma-IFN. These modifications in peptidase activities should enhance the production of those types of peptides which are preferentially transported into endoplasmic reticulum and selectively bound to MHC-class I molecules.
L Van Kaer, P G Ashton-Rickardt, M Eichelberger, M Gaczynska, K Nagashima, K L Rock, A L Goldberg, P C Doherty, S Tonegawa
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139, USA.
MHC class I molecules present peptides generated by processing of endogenously synthesized proteins to CD8+ T lymphocytes. Recently, large proteolytic complexes, termed proteasomes, were implicated in antigen processing. Two proteasomal subunits, LMP2 and LMP7, are encoded within the MHC class II region, but their precise role in antigen processing is unknown. We have generated mice that harbor a disruption in their LMP2 gene. Proteasomes purified from spleen and liver of these mutant mice exhibit altered peptidase activities, and antigen-presenting cells showed reduced capacity to stimulate a T cell hybridoma specific for H-2Db plus a nucleoprotein epitope of an influenza A virus. The mutant mice have reduced (60%-70% of wild type) levels of CD8+ T lymphocytes and generate 5- to 6-fold fewer influenza nucleoprotein-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors. These findings indicate that LMP2 influences antigen processing.
Major histocompatibility complex class I-presented antigenic peptides are degraded in cytosolic extracts primarily by thimet oligopeptidase.
Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
Nearly all peptides generated by proteasomes during protein degradation are digested rapidly to amino acids, but a few proteasomal products escape this fate and are presented to the immune system on cell surface major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. To test whether these antigenic peptides may be inherently resistant to cytosolic peptidases, six different antigenic peptides were incubated with HeLa cell extracts. All six were degraded rapidly by a process involving o-phenanthroline-sensitive metallopeptidases. One antigenic peptide, FAPGNYPAL, was rapidly destroyed in the extracts by a bestatin-sensitive exopeptidase, apparently by the puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase. The disappearance of the other five was reduced 30-90% by a specific inhibitor of the cytosolic endopeptidase, thimet oligopeptidase (TOP)(EC ), whose physiological function(s) have been unclear and controversial. All these peptides were sensitive to pure recombinant TOP. Furthermore, upon fractionation of the extracts, the major peptidase peak that degraded the ovalbumin-derived epitope, SIINFEKL, co-purified with TOP. In the extracts, TOP also catalyzed rapid degradation of N-extended variants of SIINFEKL and of other antigenic peptides, which in vivo can serve as precursors of these major histocompatibility complex-presented epitopes. This enzyme (unlike cell proteins that promote production of antigenic peptides) is not regulated by interferon-gamma. TOP seems to be primarily responsible for the rapid breakdown of antigenic peptides in cytosolic extracts, and our related studies (A. X. Y. Mo, K. Lemerise, W. Zeng, Y. Shen, C. R. Abraham, A. L. Goldberg, and K. L. Rock, submitted for publication) indicate that TOP by destroying such peptides limits antigen presentation in vivo.
Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Protein degradation by proteasomes is the source of most antigenic peptides presented on MHC class I molecules. To determine whether proteasomes generate these peptides directly or longer precursors, we developed new methods to measure the efficiency with which 26S and 20S particles, during degradation of a protein, generate the presented epitope or potential precursors. Breakdown of ovalbumin by the 26S and 20S proteasomes yielded the immunodominant peptide SIINFEKL, but produced primarily variants containing 1-7 additional N-terminal residues. Only 6-8% of the times that ovalbumin molecules were digested was a SIINFEKL or an N-extended version produced. Surprisingly, immunoproteasomes which contain the interferon-gamma-induced beta-subunits and are more efficient in antigen presentation, produced no more SIINFEKL than proteasomes. However, the immunoproteasomes released 2-4 times more of certain N-extended versions. These observations show that the changes in cleavage specificity of immunoproteasomes influence not only the C-terminus, but also the N-terminus of potential antigenic peptides, and suggest that most MHC-presented peptides result from N-terminal trimming of larger proteasome products by aminopeptidases (e.g. the interferon-gamma-induced enzyme leucine aminopeptidase).
Sequences that flank subdominant and cryptic epitopes influence the proteolytic generation of MHC class I-presented peptides.
Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.
The proteasome has been shown to make the proper C-terminal cleavage for the generation of several immunodominant class I-presented peptides whereas aminopeptidases generate their proper N termini. In this study, we show that these two distinct proteolytic processes are also involved in generating a subdominant OVA peptide KVVRFDKL (K-L). Moreover, proteasome inhibitors did not enhance the presentation of any K-L construct, suggesting that destruction of this peptide by proteasomes, if any, does not limit its presentation. We have further examined in intact cells the influence of residues flanking this epitope on these proteolytic processes. When the N-terminal flanking residues of K-L are fused to an immunodominant OVA peptide SIINFEKL (S-L), the presentation of S-L is reduced as compared with a construct with its natural flanking sequence and was not inhibited (or enhanced) by proteasome inhibitors. Similarly, a reduction in presentation was observed when the C-terminal flanking residues of the subdominant epitope were attached to S-L. A detailed analysis revealed that the Pro at the P1' position of K-L was responsible for this reduction, and presentation of these C-terminally extended constructs was sensitive to proteasome inhibitor. The study suggests that both the N- and C-terminal flanks of the subdominant peptide are suboptimal for Ag presentation. Moreover, three of four C-terminal residues that flank other subdominant or cryptic epitopes in OVA reduced the presentation of S-L. Therefore, the residues that flank the C termini of several subdominant and cryptic epitopes are often suboptimal for cleavage and may contribute to the phenomenon of immunodominance.
Latest similar papers:
Hepatology. 2010 Oct ;52 (4):1242-50 20658465
Glucosidase inhibition enhances presentation of de-N-glycosylated hepatitis B virus epitopes by major histocompatibility complex class I in vitro and in woodchucks.
Pamela A Norton, Stephan Menne, Gomathinayagam Sinnathamby, Lucy Betesh, Paul J Cote, Ramila Philip, Anand S Mehta, Bud C Tennant, Timothy M Block
Drexel Institute for Biotechnology and Virology Research and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Doylestown, PA, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
In this report, the possibility of pharmacologically altering the hepatitis B virus (HBV) epitopes presented by major histocompatibility complex class I on infected cells is demonstrated. The HBV middle envelope glycoprotein (MHBs) maturation appears to require calnexin-mediated folding. This interaction is dependent on glucosidases in the endoplasmic reticulum. Prevention of HBV envelope protein maturation in cultured cells through use of glucosidase inhibitors, such as 6-O-butanoyl castanospermine and N-nonyl deoxynorjirimycin, resulted in MHBs degradation by proteasomes. The de-N-glycosylation associated with polypeptide degradation was predicted to result in conversion of asparagine residues into aspartic acid residues. This prediction was confirmed by showing that peptides corresponding to the N-glycosylation sequons of MHBs, but with aspartic acid replacing asparagine,(1) can prime human cytotoxic T lymphocytes that recognize HBV-producing cells and (2) that the presentation of these envelope motifs by major histocompatibility complex class I is enhanced by incubation with glucosidase inhibitors. Moreover, although peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from woodchucks chronically infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus and vaccinated with woodchuck hepatitis virus surface antigen could be induced to recognize the natural MHBs asparagine-containing peptides, only cells isolated from animals treated with glucosidase inhibitor recognized the aspartic acid-containing peptides. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that pharmacological intervention with glucosidase inhibitors can alter the MHBs epitopes presented. This editing of the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide results in a new epitope, or "editope", with possible medical significance.
What is the role of alternate splicing in antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules?
Alan Belicha-Villanueva, Jennifer Blickwedehl, Sarah McEvoy, Michelle Golding, Sandra O Gollnick, Naveen Bangia
Department of Immunology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.
The expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules on the cell surface is critical for recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). This recognition event leads to destruction of cells displaying MHC class I-viral peptide complexes or cells displaying MHC class I-mutant peptide complexes. Before they can be transported to the cell surface, MHC class I molecules must associate with their peptide ligand in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the cell. Within the ER, numerous proteins assist in the appropriate assembly and folding of MHC class I molecules. These include the heterodimeric transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP1 and TAP2), the heterodimeric chaperone-oxidoreductase complex of tapasin and ERp57 and the general ER chaperones calreticulin and calnexin. Each of these accessory proteins has a well-defined role in antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules. However, alternate splice forms of MHC class I heavy chains, TAP and tapasin, have been reported suggesting additional complexity to the picture of antigen presentation. Here, we review the importance of these different accessory proteins and the progress in our understanding of alternate splicing in antigen presentation.
Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. email@example.com
Proteasomal degradation of intracellular proteins facilitates the recognition of foreign proteins through interactions with major histocompatibility complex molecules presented to T cells. Interferon-gamma enhances the efficiency of this antigen presentation process by inducing a switch of proteasome to immunoproteasome catalytic subunits. The finding that immunoproteasomes are upregulated in IgA nephropathy may prompt further exploration of the role and mechanism of proteasome activation and intensify the quest for infectious agents that may induce IgA nephritis.
Ethanol metabolism alters major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted antigen presentation in liver cells.
Liver Study Unit, Omaha Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105, USA.
The proteasome is a major enzyme that cleaves proteins for antigen presentation. Cleaved peptides traffic to the cell surface, where they are presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. Recognition of these complexes by cytotoxic T lymphocytes is crucial for elimination of cells bearing "nonself" proteins. Our previous studies revealed that ethanol suppresses proteasome function in ethanol-metabolizing liver cells. We hypothesized that proteasome suppression reduces the hydrolysis of antigenic peptides, thereby decreasing the presentation of the peptide MHC class I complexes on the cell surface. To test this we used the mouse hepatocyte cell line (CYP2E1/ADH-transfected HepB5 cells) or primary mouse hepatocytes, both derived from livers of C57Bl/6 mice, which present the ovalbumin peptide, SIINFEKL, complexed with H2Kb. To induce H2Kb expression, HepB5 cells were treated with interferon gamma (IFNgamma) and then exposed to ethanol. In these cells, ethanol metabolism decreased not only proteasome activity, but also hydrolysis of the C-extended peptide, SIINFEKL-TE, and the presentation of SIINFEKL-H2Kb complexes measured after the delivery of SIINFEKL-TE to cytoplasm. The suppressive effects of ethanol were, in part, attributed to ethanol-elicited impairment of IFNgamma signaling. However, in primary hepatocytes, even in the absence of IFNgamma, we observed a similar decline in proteasome activity and antigen presentation after ethanol exposure. CONCLUSION: Proteasome function is directly suppressed by ethanol metabolism and indirectly by preventing the activating effects of IFNgamma. Ethanol-elicited reduction in proteasome activity contributes to the suppression of SIINFEKL-H2Kb presentation on the surface of liver cells.
Need for tripeptidyl-peptidase II in major histocompatibility complex class I viral antigen processing when proteasomes are detrimental.
Sara Guil, Marta Rodríguez-Castro, Francisco Aguilar, Eugenia M Villasevil, Luis C Antón, Margarita Del Val
Viral Immunology Unit, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Majadahonda, Madrid E-28220.
CD8+ T lymphocytes recognize infected cells that display virus-derived antigenic peptides complexed with major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Peptides are mainly by-products of cellular protein turnover by cytosolic proteasomes. Cytosolic tripeptidyl-peptidase II, TPPII, also participates in protein degradation. Several peptidic epitopes unexpectedly do not require proteasomes, but it is unclear which proteases generate them. We studied antigen processing of influenza virus nucleoprotein epitope NP147-155, an archetype epitope that is even destroyed by a proteasome-mediated mechanism. TPPII, with the assistance of endoplasmic reticulum trimming metallo-aminopeptidases, probably ERAAP (endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase associated with antigen processing), was crucial for nucleoprotein epitope generation, both in the presence of functional proteasomes and when blocked by lactacystin, as shown with specific chemical inhibitors and gene silencing. Different protein contexts and subcellular targetings all allowed epitope processing by TPPII, as well as trimming. The results show the plasticity of the cell's assortment of proteases for providing ligands for recognition by antiviral CD8+ T cells. Our observations identify for the first time a set of proteases competent for antigen processing of an epitope that is susceptible to destruction by proteasomes.
Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.
Peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules are derived mainly from cytosolic oligopeptides generated by proteasomes during the degradation of intracellular proteins. Proteasomal cleavages generate the final C terminus of these epitopes. Although proteasomes may produce mature epitopes that are eight to ten residues in length, they more often generate N-extended precursors that are too long to bind to major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Such precursors are trimmed in the cytosol or in the endoplasmic reticulum by aminopeptidases that generate the N terminus of the presented epitope. Peptidases can also destroy epitopes by trimming peptides to below the size needed for presentation. In the cytosol, endopeptidases, especially thimet oligopeptidase, and aminopeptidases degrade many proteasomal products, thereby limiting the supply of many antigenic peptides. Thus, the extent of antigen presentation depends on the balance between several proteolytic processes that may generate or destroy epitopes.
Peptide generation in the major histocompatibility complex class I antigen processing and presentation pathway.
Immunology Program, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The bulk of antigens that are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules are processed in the cytosol. Therefore, the cellular protein degradation machinery is thought to play a major role in antigen processing. For example, there is clear evidence that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, the major proteolytic pathway in the cytosol, plays a role in the processing of class I-associated antigens. In addition, peptide chaperones must exist to properly target peptides to the transporter associated with antigen processing. Here, the author reviews some of the more important advances over the past year that further define the pathways of antigen breakdown in the cytosol. This includes a look at the distinctive roles of proteasomes versus immunoproteasomes, the isolation of peptide processing intermediates in the cytosol, and the role of defective ribosomal products. These findings highlight the importance of understanding basic cellular protein degradation pathways in antigen processing.
Cytoplasmic processing is a prerequisite for presentation of an endogenous antigen by major histocompatibility complex class II proteins.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology and the Walther Oncology Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA.
Biochemical and functional studies have demonstrated major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted presentation of select epitopes derived from cytoplasmic antigens, with few insights into the processing reactions necessary for this alternate pathway. Efficient presentation of an immunodominant epitope derived from glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) was observed regardless of whether this antigen was delivered exogenously or via a cytoplasmic route into human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen class II-DR4(+) antigen-presenting cells. Presentation of exogenous as well as cytoplasmic GAD required the intersection of GAD peptides and newly synthesized class II proteins. By contrast, proteolytic processing of this antigen was highly dependent upon the route of antigen delivery. Exogenous GAD followed the classical pathway for antigen processing, with an absolute requirement for endosomal/lysosomal acidification as well as cysteine and aspartyl proteases resident within these organelles. Presentation of endogenous GAD was dependent upon the action of cytoplasmic proteases, including the proteasome and calpain. Thus, translocation of processed antigen from the cytoplasm into membrane organelles is necessary for class II-restricted presentation via this alternate pathway. Further trimming of these peptides after translocation was mediated by acidic proteases within endosomes/lysosomes, possibly after or before class II antigen binding. These studies suggest that processing of exogenous and cytoplasmic proteins occurs through divergent but overlapping pathways. Furthermore, two cytoplasmic proteases, the proteasome and calpain, appear to play important roles in MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation.
Department of Cell Biology and Section of Immunobiology, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8002, USA.
The association of invariant (Ii) chain with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II dimers is required for proper antigen presentation to T cells by antigen-presenting cells. Mice lacking Ii chain have severe abnormalities in class II transport, T cell selection, and B cell maturation. We demonstrate here that H2-M, which is required for efficient class II antigenic peptide loading, is unexpectedly downregulated in splenocytes and mature dendritic cells (DCs) from Ii(-/-) mice. Downregulation reflects an increased rate of degradation in Ii(-/-) cells. Degradation apparently occurs within lysosomes, as it is prevented by cysteine protease inhibitors such as E64, but not by the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin. Thus, Ii chain may act as a lysosomal protease inhibitor in B cells and DCs, with its deletion contributing indirectly to the loss of H2-M.
Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester 01655, USA.
The class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I) presents 8-10 residue peptides to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Most of these antigenic peptides are generated during protein degradation in the cytoplasm and are then transported into the endoplasmic reticulum by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). Several lines of evidence have indicated that the proteasome is the major proteolytic activity responsible for generation of antigenic peptides--probably most conclusive has been the finding that specific inhibitors of the proteasome block antigen presentation. However, other proteases (e.g. the signal peptidase) may also generate some epitopes, particularly those on certain MHC class I alleles. The proteasome is responsible for generating the precise C termini of many presented peptides, and appears to be the only activity in cells that can make this cleavage. In contrast, aminopeptidases in the cytoplasm and endoplasmic reticulum can trim the N terminus of extended peptides to their proper size. Interestingly, the cellular content of proteases involved in the production and destruction of antigenic peptides is modified by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) treatment of cells. IFN-gamma induces the expression of three new proteasome beta subunits that are preferentially incorporated into new proteasomes and alter their pattern of peptidase activities. These changes are likely to enhance the yield of peptides with C termini appropriate for MHC binding and have been shown to enhance the presentation of at least some antigens. IFN-gamma also upregulates leucine aminopeptidase, which should promote the removal of N-terminal flanking residues of antigenic peptides. Also, this cytokine downregulates the expression of a metallo-proteinase, thimet oligopeptidase, that actively destroys many antigenic peptides. Thus, IFN-gamma appears to increase the supply of peptides by stimulating their generation and decreasing their destruction. The specificity and content of these various proteases should determine the amount of peptides available for antigen presentation. Also, the efficiency with which a peptide is presented is determined by the protein's half life (e.g. its ubiquitination rate) and the sequences flanking antigenic peptides, which influence the rates of proteolytic cleavage and destruction.