University of Belgrade, Yugoslavia. firstname.lastname@example.org
When two sizes, one perceived by vision and the other by kinesthesia, are apparently equal, the physical relationship between them varies: The sizes may be equal, or the visual size may be larger than the kinesthetic size, or vice versa. In this study, the method of cross-modal matching and the method of magnitude production were used to explore the relationship between apparently equal sizes (5-40 cm) perceived by vision and by kinesthesia. The sizes were linear or circular, and the mode of standard presentation was visual, kinesthetic, or verbal. The size and the direction of the intermodal mismatch varied with the size of the standard. It was also found that an apparent length of movement varied with the direction of movement. In all conditions, the relationship between apparently equal visual and kinesthetic sizes was well approximated by a power function.
Mental concatenation of perceptually and cognitively specified depth to represent locations in near space.
The purpose of this study was to examine how discrete segments of contiguous space arising from perceptual or cognitive channels are mentally concatenated. We induced and measured errors in each channel separately, then summed the psychophysical functions to accurately predict pointing to a depth specified by both together. In Experiment 1, subjects drew a line to match the visible indentation of a probe into a compressible surface. Systematic perceptual errors were induced by manipulating surface stiffness. Subjects in Experiment 2 placed the probe against a rigid surface and viewed the depth of a hidden target below it from a remote image with a metric scale. This cognitively mediated depth judgment produces systematic under-estimation (Wu et al. in IEEE Trans Vis Comput Grap 11(6):684-693, 2005; confirmed here). In Experiment 3, subjects pointed to a target location detected by the indented probe and displayed remotely, requiring mental concatenation of the depth components. The model derived from the data indicated the errors in the components were passed through the integration process without additional systematic error. Experiment 4 further demonstrated that this error-free concatenation was intrinsically spatial, rather than numerical.
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Vision Res. 2012 Jan 15;53 (1):40-6 22142785
Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, United Kingdom. email@example.com
Kirschmann's Fourth Law states that the magnitude of simultaneous color contrast increases with the saturation of the inducing surround, but that the rate of increase reduces as saturation increases. Others since Kirschmann have agreed and disagreed. Here we show that the form of the relationship between simultaneous color contrast and inducer saturation depends on the method of measurement. Functions were measured by four methods:(i) asymmetric matching with a black surround,(ii) asymmetric matching with a surround metameric to equal energy white,(iii) dichoptic matching, and (iv) nulling an induced sinusoidal modulation. Results from the asymmetric matching conditions agreed with Kirschmann, whereas results from nulling and from dichoptic matching showed a more linear increase in simultaneous contrast with the saturation of the inducer. We conclude that the method certainly affects the conclusions reached, and that there may not be any "fair" way of measuring simultaneous contrast.
Department of Healthcare Quality Assessment, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo.
Debate about the relationship between quantitative and qualitative paradigms is often muddled and confusing and the clutter of terms and arguments has resulted in the concepts becoming obscure and unrecognizable. In this study we conducted content analysis regarding evaluation methods of qualitative healthcare research. We extracted descriptions on four types of evaluation paradigm (validity/credibility, reliability/credibility, objectivity/confirmability, and generalizability/transferability), and classified them into subcategories. In quantitative research, there has been many evaluation methods based on qualitative paradigms, and vice versa. Thus, it might not be useful to consider evaluation methods of qualitative paradigm are isolated from those of quantitative methods. Choosing practical evaluation methods based on the situation and prior conditions of each study is an important approach for researchers.
Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. firstname.lastname@example.org
Mass can be perceived in different ways: statically, through gravitational cues; dynamically, through inertial cues; or a combination of both. This article investigates the relationship between these modes of perception. In three different experiments, subjects matched masses that were held statically in the hand to masses that were either accelerated or decelerated. Accelerated masses were perceived to be smaller than masses of equal physical magnitude held statically by a factor of 2. However, decelerated masses were matched veridically to masses held statically. This difference remained present when contact duration was made very short. This shows that the shift in perceived mass is not the result of differences in the information available, but of differences in the mode of perception (active acceleration vs. passive deceleration). It is hypothesized that this is due to a suppression of the perception of applied force in active touch.
Psychology Department, Stony Brook Univer Stony Brook, NY 11794-2500, USA. email@example.com
In general, if a variable can be expressed as a function of its own maximum value, that function may be called a discount function. Delay discounting and probability discounting are commonly studied in psychology, but memory, matching, and economic utility also may be viewed as discounting processes. When they are so viewed, the discount function obtained is hyperbolic in form. In some cases the effective discounting variable is proportional to the physical variable on which it is based. For example, in delay discounting, the physical variable, delay (D), may enter into the hyperbolic equation as kD. In many cases, however, the discounting data are not well described with a single-parameter discount function. A much better fit is obtained when the effective variable is a power function of the physical variable (kDS in the case of delay discounting). This power-function form fits the data of delay, probability, and memory discounting as well as other two-parameter discount functions and is consistent with both the generalized matching law and maximization of a constant-elasticity-of-substitution utility
Kyung Mook Choi, Bon D Ku, Yong Jeong, Byung Hwa Lee, Hyun-Jung Ahn, Sue J Kang, Juhee Chin, Kenneth M Heilman, Duk L Na
Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
The present study examines whether illusory movement (IM) of a horizontal line, induced by a moving background (MB), influences line-bisection performance in normal subjects. The first experiment attempted to identify the speeds of MB that induce IM. We found that when speed is increased from 1.53 degrees to 13.3 degrees/sec, IM increases, but that with further speed increases, IM decreases. Leftward MB induces rightward IM, and vice versa. In the second experiment, we had subjects bisect lines at MB speeds that had been shown to induce IM in the first experiment. We found that leftward MB induced a rightward bias, and vice versa. We also found that there was a relationship between the magnitude of IM and the degree of bias. In the third experiment, by making the target line larger than the MB, we made the conditions where IM was presumably absent. Unlike the results of bisection performed with IM, subjects showed a bias in the direction of the MB. Overall, these experiments demonstrated that the perception of motion induces subjects to attend in the direction of movement.
School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Jilin,Changchun 130024, People's Republic of China. firstname.lastname@example.org
The spatial and temporal variations of soil respiration were studied from May 2004 to June 2005 in a C3/C4 mixed grassland of Japan. The linear regression relationship between soil respiration and root biomass was used to determine the contribution of root respiration to soil respiration. The highest soil respiration rate of 11.54 micro mol m-2 s-1 was found in August 2004 and the lowest soil respiration rate of 4.99 micro mol m-2 s-1 was found in April 2005. Within-site variation was smaller than seasonal change in soil respiration. Root biomass varied from 0.71 kg m-2 in August 2004 to 1.02 in May 2005. Within-site variation in root biomass was larger than seasonal variation. Root respiration rate was highest in August 2004 (5.7 micro mol m-2 s-1) and lowest in October 2004 (1.7 micro mol m-2 s-1 ). Microbial respiration rate was highest in August 2004 (5.8 micro mol m-2 s-1 ) and lowest in April 2005 (2.59 micro mol m-2 s-1 ). We estimated that the contribution of root respiration to soil respiration ranged from 31% in October to 51% in August of 2004, and from 45% to 49% from April to June 2005.
Department of Psychology, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA.
Research in Japan and the United States has demonstrated that learning and memory may be improved when individuals are permitted to choose materials to be learned. In Japanese studies, the effects appear to be limited to the specific materials actually chosen, whereas in the United States, choice enhances recall of chosen as well as other materials that are later assigned. In the United States, personal choice has been hypothesized to affect both the learner's relationship to the chosen materials as well as motivation; in Japan personal choice affects the relationship between the learner and the chosen materials. Apparently the consequences of choice may vary in these cultures.
Department of Psychology, East Stroudsburg University, PA 18301, USA. email@example.com
Size estimation may be influenced by characteristics recalled about the object viewed. This study evaluated the influence of object familiarity on estimation of size. We compared size estimates of several familiar objects with size estimates of undefined objects matched for dimensions of pattern and color. Those estimating the size of the familiar objects made significantly larger errors than those estimating the size of the undefined objects. In a second study size estimation errors from memory were larger than when objects were directly viewed. Experience with the objects appears to decrease accuracy of estimates of size but errors may be reduced by directly observing the object.
Cytobios. 2000 ;102 (399):35-53 10822797
The relationship between the Y chromosome size and the amount of autosomal Q-heterochromatin in human populations.
Laboratory of Human Genetics, National Center of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Kyrghyzstan, C.I.S.
The relationship between the basic quantitative characteristics of the Q-heterochromatin (Q-HR) region variability of autosomes and of the Y chromosome in human populations was examined. A definite relationship between the mean number of Q-HR per individual, the distribution and frequencies of Q-HR on autosomes and the size of the Q-heterochromatin segment of the Y chromosome at the population level was shown to exist. The amount of autosomal Q-HR was lower in individuals with larger Q-heterochromatin segments on Y chromosomes, and vice versa. The hypothesis that the amount of chromosomal Q-HR in the genome of modern human populations may be under the control of natural selection, is discussed.
This study explores the emerging conflict and cooperation between two types of organizations providing home health care to chronically ill and terminal patients--the hospice and the home health agency. Exploratory results suggest that the variables of size (terminal patient load), and competition (the number of other home health agencies in an area) influence relationships between home health agencies and hospices. It is also suggested that recent Medicare regulations may encourage mergers between agencies and hospices in addition to the existing modes of cooperation and referrals.