Chico State University, CA, USA.
The mid-1800s were innovative and volatile times, both in the development of the United States and in dentistry. The political and social manifestation of this unrest was the Civil War. The strides in the country's dentistry are indicated by the founding of the first dental college, the first dental journal, and the first dental society during the two decades before the war.
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Anthropology Department, Chico State University, CA 95929-0400, USA.
To document the oral health of mid-nineteenth century frontiersmen, the dentitions of eight Seventh Cavalry troopers from the Little Bighorn Battlefield were examined for indications of disease. These observations are supplemented with historic records and compared with the oral health of other soldiers from the Indian Wars. The Seventh Cavalry troopers, despite their young ages, had a variety of oral problems, including abscesses, caries, periodontitis, attrition, antemortem tooth loss, and indications of tobacco use. One of the specimens had gold and tin foil fillings. Combining historic records and a dental approach to the archaeological specimens provides complementary insights which are unavailable otherwise from either of the individual fields.
Chico State University, USA.
This article discusses the dental techniques, methods and materials used in the South during the Civil War based on the dental restorations found in the skulls of four confederate soldiers. The skulls display a variety of dental filling materials, including thorium, lead, tin and tin amalgam. These materials were used at a time when more valuable materials, such as gold and silver, were not readily available in the South.
Fillings found in the skull of a 7th Cavalry trooper killed 118 years ago in the Battle of Little Bighorn show sophisticated, well-executed dentistry. Some fillings are examples of early preventive dentistry, using a variety of materials and techniques typical of 19th-century cavity preparation. Dental care most likely was delivered by a private dentist or performed in part at a dental school in the East or Midwest, in a large city or at West Point. The logical, deductive process suggests an identification: Cpl. George Lell. Without additional corroborative documentation, however, this is speculation. Whoever he was, the cavalryman was older and shorter and had better oral care and health than most of the comrades who died with him in 1876. He used tobacco, most likely by chewing it. His remains provide a glimpse into the reality of life and death, dental care and hygiene of the mid-19th century.
J Hist Dent. 2000 Nov ;48 (3):113-5 11806252
American Academy of the History of Dentistry, USA.
Forceps for extraction, scrapers, elements for removing decayed tissue, preparation and obturation of cavities, have all resisted time passing by. And many of these elements, exhibited in museums for their antiquity, are still being used, though perfected and made of lighter materials.
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European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control Scientific Advice Unit, Stockholm S-171 83, Sweden.
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The UVM Student Health Center from 1982-1983. firstname.lastname@example.org
The introduction of the birth control pill in 1960 precipitated 2 decades of intense social change in the United States, particularly in the area of sexuality. Colleges and universities were not immune to these changes. The author examines the struggles at 1 land-grant university to find common ground on this issue among students, faculty, administrators, and trustees between 1970 and 1976.
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Pattern recognition applied to presidential elections in the United States, 1860-1980: Role of integral social, economic, and political traits.
Department of History, American University, Washington, D.C. 20016.
The outcome of American presidential elections in 1860-1980 follows certain regular patterns which can be described phenomenologically by simple integral parameters of "common sense" type.
Psychology Program, The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, Pomona 08240-0195, USA. email@example.com
The suicide rate on death row for the period 1976 through 1999 was found to be high (113 per 100,000 per year), some five times higher than the suicide rate for the male population of the United States. The death row suicide rate was predicted by features of the death row population (negatively with the population on death row) and by social indicators of the society as a whole (negatively with birth and divorce rates and positively with marriage rates).
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Psychology Program, The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, Pomona 08240-0195, USA.
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Department of Systems Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
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